Valve three-leaved: description, structure, functions and acquired defects
In the human body, the tricuspid valve is neededas a safety device, to exclude the reverse movement of blood. It is located on the right atrial separation line and the corresponding ventricle. The structure of the valve consists of connecting plates. Violation of his work is dangerous for human life.
The valve is tricuspid, according to the scientificliterature, is also called tricuspid. When the heart moves, all processes occur synchronously. If in one of the departments there is a blockage, a slight temporary, the body immediately senses, the condition changes significantly. The state of health deteriorates immediately, it becomes difficult to breathe and it is impossible to move.
The three-leaf valve is on the leftsternum. It is part of the pumping system for pumping blood. It is a kind of a lid opening under the pressure of the blood being pushed out. Closing occurs due to the reverse forces of the fluid automatically due to pressure on the surface of the leaflets.
Incomplete closing of the three-leaf valveoccurs due to relaxation of the heart muscle, when it is no longer able to function normally. Because of the violation of redistribution of internal pressures, tissues begin to disintegrate, which as a result threatens the formation of heart disease. Some diseases become provocateurs of this pathology.
Work of the body
The tricuspid valve is part of the systemblood circulation rights. A huge amount of blood goes from the heart to the aorta, passing through all the arteries and capillaries, it exchanges oxygen with the cells, and receives carbon dioxide. At the same time, the products of decomposition are saturated with processed micronutrients and become darker. This blood is called venous.
Then there is redistribution in the rightarea of the heart, further movement occurs across all the arteries of the lung, for oxygen enrichment. The tricuspid valve has the ability to block the reverse current. This is needed to separate the working together: the left, right ventricles and atria.
Blood fills the left heart region, then fromAtrial it flows into the ventricle. After this, circulation takes place along a large circle of the circulation. The venous blood returns to the right atrium, then to the right ventricle and enters the small circle of the circulation. After saturation with oxygen, the cycle of a large circle is repeated again through the left atrium and ventricle.
Since the left and right parts of the heart worksynchronously, it is required in time to block the reverse current between the sections. After pumping blood occurs cyclically: there is a time of collection of fluid in the ventricle, followed by a powerful discharge of blood into the aorta. The valve system performs correctly:
- Located in the left heart region is referred to as the mitral.
- Valve in the arteries of the lungs.
- Aortic as a fuse of the largest system.
Doctors use the definition of regurgitation,denoting the phenomenon of blood flow in the opposite direction through the valves. To prevent this from happening, the listed blockers must be processed on time in accordance with the following rules:
- The mitral valve is open only at the momentpumping blood from the left atrium into the corresponding ventricle. It closes when the accumulated fluid is ejected into the aorta. In the structure of the valve there are two valves.
- The tricuspid aortic valve closes the passage between the right atrium and the corresponding ventricle. The work is similar to the mitral one. There are three leaves in the building.
- Pulmonary refers to the area between the pulmonary trunk and the right ventricle. Serves to block the reverse current at the time of relaxation of the heart muscle.
- The aortic is located in the output channel of the left ventricle. It blocks the reverse flow of blood from the aorta at the time of relaxation of the heart muscle. Consists of three semilunar wings.
Development of heart defects
Insufficient tricuspid valve leadsto the formation of regurgitation of the blood or its reverse flow from the atrium into the ventricle. This occurs at the time of systole (the exit of the right ventricle). The relaxed flaps flex under the pressure of blood.
This condition can be formed by mechanical aortic blockage. Most patients get the disease during life. But there are examples of congenital heart defects.
Forms of pathologies
Violation of the valves occurs for the following reasons:
- Lack of necessary trace elements in the body, on which the density and elasticity of the tissues that form the valve plates depend.
- Violation of the functionality of the tricuspid valve can occur due to a malfunction in the work of neighboring heart.
Due to stagnation of blood in the body occursincomplete closure of the tricuspid heart valve. Can lead a person into a state of incapacity. Hypertrophic atrial walls are formed by dilatation (expansion) of the right ventricle. This causes stagnant processes in the arteries and veins.
You can detect pathology by internal sensations and by swelling of the vein on the neck at the time of expulsion of blood from the heart. Venous pressure, as a rule, increases. The liver is significantly enlarged.
Causes and symptoms
Among the established reasons for the weakening of the tricuspid valve are the following:
- Carcinoid syndrome.
- Consequences of developed rheumatism.
- When endocarditis is of an infectious origin.
- Mechanical damage to the papillary muscles or rupture of the chords.
- Consequence of the action of myocarditis.
- After cardiomyopathy.
- Consequence of severe thyrotoxicosis.
Congenital pathologies often occur in conjunction withother abnormalities in the structure of the heart. Stenosis of the tricuspid valve can lead to retraction of the chest, which the doctor discovers by palpation. Also, during listening to the heartbeats, there are significant noises during systole (ejection of blood from the ventricle).
However, noise can only be detected with acuteinsufficiency. Less pronounced symptoms are often ignored. For an accurate diagnosis, instrumental research is required on the apparatus.
When diagnosing systolic noise is important duringinspiration. This indicates a lack of tricuspid valve. However, it should be remembered that this phenomenon is not permanent and can disappear completely for some time. To confirm the preliminary diagnosis, an electrocardiogram is taken.
On the resulting graph, in pathology, observe:
- deviation of the electric axis to the right;
- increase in the size of the P wave (in the area of the second and third thoracic leads).
X-ray can also be used. The picture shows dilatation of the ventricle or atrium. Deviations are also seen in pictures of echocardiography, where abnormal movements of cardiac septa are established. When analyzing the patient's condition, the following points are taken into account:
- The type of noise and the area of its manifestation.
- The size of the heart, often it is enlarged.
- Presence of stagnant phenomena in the circulation.
- The value of venous pressure.
- Dimensions of the liver.
- Condition of the chest.
- Pressure in the right atrium.
The narrowing of the orifice is called stenosis. This phenomenon occurs under the influence of rheumatism, congenital malformations, as well as prolonged mechanical exposure. As a result of the disease, there is an increase in pressure on the walls of the heart. The atrium is enlarged. Stagnant phenomena in the circulatory system begin.
For the treatment of mild cases, pathologies are performedpreventive actions. Starting with the second degree of severity, surgical intervention is already recommended. The valve is treated with a scalpel, as a result, it is often necessary to sew plates or three instead of leaving only two. According to statistics, about 14% of patients do not survive after the operation.
But even after successful treatment of the patient alreadyacquires disability. It is necessary to avoid physical exertion and undergo periodic examinations to exclude further progression of pathology.