Kidney shortness: symptoms, consequences and treatment
The kidney is an organ that has mobility. Normally, it can move, but not more than a few centimeters. The omission of the kidney in a scientific way is called nephroptosis. Pathology is characterized by abnormal displacement of the organ with any movement of the person to two or more vertebrae down. Omission of the right kidney occurs more often than the left kidney. There is also nephroptosis at the same time as the entire paired organ, but this phenomenon is extremely rare. In the article we will talk about omission of the kidneys, symptoms and consequences, causes and methods of treatment of pathology.
A little anatomy
Keeping the kidney in its normal position is called the fixing apparatus. It includes the following structures:
- Vessels. They play an insignificant role in fixing the organ, because they are able to lengthen with nephroptosis.
- Fat capsule. It is a paranephric fatty tissue that performs a fixative, protective function.
- Fascial apparatus. The fascia is located outside of the fat capsule, consists of the posterior and anterior sheets. They join together on the upper pole and form a suspending binder that passes into the connective membrane covering the diaphragm. In the fixation of the kidney, the fascial apparatus plays an insignificant role.
- Abdominal ligaments. These are the folds of the peritoneum, covering the organ from the front. Splenic-renal and pancreatic-renal ligaments fix the left kidney, duodenum-kidney and hepatic-renal are designed to prevent the right kidney from descending. Symptoms of nephroptosis you will feel if the abdominal ligaments begin to stretch.
- The kidney bed. It is formed by a diaphragm, fasciae, muscles of the abdominal wall.
Causes of nephroptosis
The amplitude of kidney movement is normaltwo to five centimeters (often 3.5 centimeters). But there are certain pathological factors that weaken the fixation apparatus, as a result of which the organ's mobility increases, and the kidney goes down.
In adolescence, nephroptosis may result in a sharpweight loss caused by malnutrition. Also provoking factors may be incorrectly selected physical activities and excessive sports, leading to sudden changes in intra-abdominal pressure. Infectious diseases that occur chronically and are accompanied by weight loss, can lead to depletion of the fatty capsule, which protects the organ from motion.
The omission of the kidney may also be due toincorrect organization of labor, characterized by long-term human presence in vibration. In addition, nephroptosis often develops as a result of injuries, especially after falls from a height in which the integrity of the ligaments and fascias is disturbed. In this case, the fixation of the kidney becomes untenable. The organ can also be displaced from the kidney by hematoma, resulting from trauma to the lumbar region or abdomen.
Nephroptosis and pregnancy
In women who have already given birth, omission of the kidney canto develop with a greater probability than those of nulliparous. This is due to a sharp decrease in pregnancy after intraperitoneal pressure due to weakening of the muscles of the abdominal press. As a result, the fixing apparatus is weakened, and this is already a predisposing factor to nephroptosis. The risk of a pathology directly depends on the size of the abdomen during pregnancy, the degree of stretching of the anterior wall of the peritoneum, the number of transferred labor.
Omission of the kidney: symptoms
Patients often do not notice any signspathology, and it is detected, as a rule, by accident, when examined. Indeed, the clinical manifestations of nephroptosis in the case of its course without violation of hemo- and urodynamics are extremely scarce. The severity of symptoms mainly depends on the degree of omission. Based on clinical manifestations and features of the pathology, three stages of nephroptosis are distinguished.
The first stage
The kidney is one-thirdpalpation. Its lower edge at the height of the inspiration is probed, and on exhalation it leaves in the hypochondrium. This stage proceeds without a pronounced clinical picture. If the organ is lowered by seven centimeters or more, dull pain radiating to the lumbar region may occur. Their occurrence is associated with the dilatation of the fascial capsule.
Also, a person may experience soreness intime of physical exertion, but at rest or when taking a horizontal position, when the body occupies its place in the renal bed, it usually passes. When the ovulation of the left kidney develops, the symptoms may also include heaviness in the left hypochondrium.
The second stage
Almost the whole organ comes out from under the costal arch. The kidney in the vertical position of the body by two thirds becomes accessible for palpation, but still when taking a horizontal position, it returns to the renal bed. When the degree of displacement increases, the symptomatology also increases. The pains acquire a more intense character, resemble renal colic. Unpleasant sensations arise when the body position changes sharply, and during physical exertion. In addition, there are changes in the urine: the level of erythrocytes and protein rises, indicating a stagnation in the kidney of blood due to violation of venous outflow.
The third stage
The entire organ emerges from under the costal arch,Lowering occurs up to the small pelvis. Pain becomes permanent and often also extends to the inguinal region. There may be nausea, vomiting. At this time complications are already developing, including kidney hydronephrosis, pyelonephritis, arterial hypertension. Due to such complications, and also because of a long disruption of blood supply during urination, fork bleeding can occur. There is a risk of the patient developing psychoemotional disorders: neurasthenia, insomnia, depression, dizziness, overexcitability, increased fatigue, and reduced appetite.
Diagnosis of nephroptosis
In the early stages, as already mentioned, omissionThe kidney is often detected by chance, although the patient can consult a doctor with complaints about recurrent low back pain. The main diagnostic method is urography (X-ray examination with contrasting). It is carried out in horizontal and vertical positions. In this way, the degree of nephroptosis can be reliably determined. At a later stage of the pathology, when blood erythrocytes are present in the urine, the most informative diagnostic method is veno-and arteriography (renal vessels). They are held in an upright position. Such a method makes it possible to determine with accuracy the extent to which the circulation of blood is disturbed in the vessels of the organ.
Kidney shortage: treatment
Nephroptosis can be treated conservatively and operatively. When choosing the first option to eliminate the pathology does not work, but you can prevent unpleasant consequences. The patient should use a bandage when omitting the kidneys, perform special exercises, intensively (but at the same time correctly) eat.
The operation is assigned only whenThere are sharp pains and complications that prevent a person from moving and depriving him of work ability, such as vasorenal hypertension, hydronephrosis transformation, pyelonephritis, fornal bleeding, progressive pyeloectasia.
The first thing the doctor prescribes is to wear a bandage whenomission of the kidneys. If you start using it at an early stage of nephroptosis, you can protect yourself against the progression of pathology and the development of complications. Only in the horizontal position on the exhalation should wear a bandage, do this after waking up, even before getting out of bed.
It is also necessary to perform special exerciseswhen the kidney is lowered in order to strengthen the muscles of the anterior wall of the peritoneum. The most effective is the swallow exercise. Lie on your stomach on a hard surface and very slowly lift your legs together, arms and head stretched out to the sides. Lock this position and hold it for a while, and then return slowly to the starting position. Rest and repeat the exercise. You need to do at least fifteen or twenty repetitions, then lie on your stomach for a couple of minutes without moving, and then turn on your back and rest for at least half an hour. First you will feel pain in the kidney area, but it will decrease with each time. But remember: the exercises when omitting the kidneys, which you are going to perform, must be coordinated with the doctor.
As you already understood, neither with the help of drugs, nor withhelp the exercises will not succeed in eliminating the omission of the kidney. Treatment with folk remedies, too, will not return the organ to its place, but it can prevent and eliminate numerous complications.
- When nephroptosis should be used infusion sporishi. Take it three times a day for one hundred grams for half an hour before meals.
- It is worth trying this method: sprinkle a handful of flaxseed with water and sprinkle with half a teaspoon of powdered sugar, then fry it a little on a non-oiled frying pan. Chew the seeds like ordinary seeds when they want. It is also very useful to take sunflower seeds and pumpkins, any nuts.
- Pour two tablespoons of kohi into the thermos(grass), pour a half cup of boiling water and leave it overnight. The next morning, strain the infusion and drink it fifty milligrams between meals.
- Scissors cut one kilogram of straw finelyoats and pour 20 liters of water. Boil for an hour over low heat, then cover and leave for another two hours. The received broth in a warm kind use in the mornings and evenings for acceptance of sedentary baths (in day). Baths should be taken after basic water procedures have been carried out. Infusion is allowed to apply several times.
- To enhance immunity, take a tincture of echinacea, eleutherococcus extract, multivitamins.
As a result of the operation, kidney fixation takes place,that is, its pathological mobility is eliminated. As already mentioned, not always nephroptosis serves as an indication for surgical intervention, but only in the presence of serious complications. Before surgery, as a rule, for three days the patient is recommended to sleep on a bed with a slightly raised end. This helps to return the organ to its normal position and facilitates the process.
During the surgical intervention, the kidneyfix in the muscles of the abdominal wall. There are several methods, the choice of a particular method is based on the clinical picture. After the operation, the patient must also lie on the bed, which has a raised leg. This is necessary for a faster and more successful recovery. To adhere to this regime follows several days, after which the beds are given the usual position, and the patient is allowed to get up and walk.
For another two weeks aftersurgical intervention is carried out anti-inflammatory therapy. At this time the patient should avoid sudden or prolonged straining during defecation. If necessary, you can use microclysters or light laxatives. It should be noted that almost all patients undergo surgery successfully.
Consequences of nephroptosis
Kidney is a pathology that needscompulsory treatment. Otherwise, the likelihood of developing unwanted complications is extremely high. Nephroptosis provokes a violation of urinary outflow, which, in turn, leads to an increase in the pressure inside the kidney. Even at a time when the pathology does not yet manifest itself, complications in the renal parenchyma can already arise.
When the normal outflow of urine from the kidney is disturbed,develops a dangerous disease - pyelonephritis. It can disrupt the habitual life of a person, and sometimes the symptoms are so painful that emergency medical attention is required.
Omission of the kidney can cause arterialhypertension, and this increases the risk of stroke. Among other things, nephroptosis often involves the formation of kidney stones. Dangerous pathology for women in case of pregnancy: due to the omission of the body, spontaneous miscarriage may occur.