First aid for wound and bleeding
Each of us in our life had to deal withwounds. From the earliest childhood, kids knock their knees, and in adulthood we often have to deal with injuries - some akin to knees knocked down, and others are much more serious.
The subject of our article will be wounds, types of wounds, the firsthelp that should be provided immediately. We will also talk about how to act when bleeding occurs, because all these rules must be known to every person.
The wound and its types
First a few words about what a wound is. In medicine, it is considered as damage, with violation of the integrity of the skin, mucous membranes and with possible damage to deep tissues. In this case there is pain, bleeding and divergence of the edges of the wound.
These injuries can be caused accidentally or surgically. In addition, by nature they can be penetrating, which is very dangerous, or non-penetrating, that is, superficial.
Depending on how the wound was inflicted and what kind of object, they are divided into:
But no matter what kind thesedamage, improperly rendered first aid in the wound can provoke the development of wound infection. Especially dangerous damage to deep layers of tissues and internal organs. Therefore, the provision of first aid for wounds should be carried out with the obligatory observance of certain rules. This will help avoid complications.
General rules for first aid
First aid for a wound should be providedimmediately. The faster the damage is treated with an antiseptic, the fewer microorganisms it will contain, which will promote faster healing. So:
- The very first rule in the treatment of a wound: hands must be clean and treated with an antiseptic in the one who provides first aid.
- If there is a bleeding, first of all it is necessary to stop it. We'll talk about this a little later.
- If there are foreign objects in the wound, they must be removed by a doctor. For this, you will have to visit the nearest hospital.
- For treatment, it is best to use an antiseptic that does not contain alcohol, so that it does not cause additional irritation or burns. An excellent option is hydrogen peroxide.
- Means containing alcohol, it is necessary to treat the area around the wound. To do this, you can use an alcohol solution of iodine or a solution of brilliant green.
- The wound should be closed with a sterile swab after treatment. It can be an antiseptic treated tissue or a sterile bandage.
- If the wound is caused by a bite of an animal, especially a poisonous or sick person, you should immediately consult a doctor.
First aid for a wound has some peculiarities, depending on the type of damage.
Bruises, cuts and puncture wounds
First aid for cuts, bruises and chopped wounds is to stop bleeding.
With stab wounds, a small area is damagedskin, but the penetration can be deep enough. Therefore, the risk of infection is very high. If the cause is a rusty nail or a sharp, dirty object, of course, after treatment with an antiseptic and applying a bandage, you should see the doctor.
Wounds, received with bruises, should be examined by a doctor, you may have to remove damaged tissue sites.
A chopped wound, of course, will havedivergence of edges. It is also better to consult a doctor with her. Since it may be necessary to remove the damaged tissue and close the wound with staples, seams, although it may be enough sticking plaster.
First aid for cut wounds is instop bleeding and treatment. You need to go to a medical institution if you need emergency tetanus prophylaxis. As most often it is the damage received in the private plots, during excavation.
Helping with gunshot wounds
A gunshot injury is a very serious anda dangerous kind of wound. First aid in wounds, timely rendered, can save a person's life. Therefore, it is very important to act properly in this situation.
Penetrating wound, as a rule, amazesinternal organs. Of course, there will be bleeding. The first action should be to stop it. Then it is necessary to close the wound and ensure complete rest, while delivering the victim to the hospital.
Do not remove the fragments of ammunition from the wound!
First aid for a wound from a bite
Bites of animals, insects and reptilesoccur quite often. This is one of the most dangerous kinds of wounds, as in animals, for example, there is a very large number of microbes on the teeth and in the mouth. But the bites of venomous snakes and spiders are especially dangerous. In such cases, the main thing is to render first aid as quickly as possible and deliver the victim to the medical institution.
If it is a bee sting, it is necessary to carefully remove the sting, then treat the bite site with an antiseptic. In this case, it is better to choose one that contains alcohol.
When you bite a poisonous snake you need to close the woundsterile dressing and immediately deliver the victim to the hospital. Doctors recommend attaching ice to the site of the bite and bandaging the limb with a tourniquet so that the poison does not have the ability to quickly spread through the body.
Regardless of what kind of wound, it can bleed profusely. In this case, it is necessary to stop bleeding, before further assistance. Let's talk about this later.
First aid for bleeding
Bleeding, as a rule, takes place with any damage to the tissues of our body. This is the process of the outpouring of blood from a torn vessel. It can be capillary, venous or arterial.
At deep wounds, arterial bleeding can occur, and it is the most dangerous.
First aid in this case isapplying a harness or twist. It is superimposed above the wound, so as to squeeze the bleeding vessel. The limb should be raised and several turns made. Bleeding should stop.
It is necessary to specify the time of application of the harnessand every 20 minutes to relax it until the restoration of blood circulation. The tow can be applied no more than 1.5 hours in the warm season or 1 hour in winter. During this time, the victim must be sent to the hospital.
Venous bleeding occurs when damagedthe walls of the veins, you can stop it, lifting the limb and bending it as hard as possible in the joint. It will be enough to have a sterile, pressing bandage. A tourniquet with venous bleeding is not allowed.
Bleeding capillary can be stopped in the same way by imposing a sterile, pressing bandage. Sometimes it is enough to treat the wound and use an adhesive plaster.
How to give first aid to a child
Children quite often knock down their knees and manage to injure themselves with something. So, let's consider how the first aid to the child is:
- Fine scratches and scratches can be washed with running boiled water and laundry soap.
- If the abrasion is deep, rinse it with "Hydrogen Peroxide" 3%.
- It is necessary to treat with zebrafish or iodine the place around the wound.
- Deep damage after treatment is best closed with a sterile bandage or bactericidal plaster.
- If the wound is not deep and does not bleed, you can not apply a bandage. She will be able to "breathe" and will sooner heal.
If bleeding does not stop, it is necessary to apply a tourniquet and consult a doctor.
What can not be done with a wound
There are several prohibitions when the first medical help is provided for wounds:
- Do not put antiseptics containing alcohol in the wound. Such as iodine, a solution of brilliant greens, cologne, vodka or a solution of potassium permanganate.
- Do not wash the wound with water, cover with powders or apply ointment.
- It is not recommended to apply cotton on the wound, it can cause the spread of the infection.
- Do not advise doctors and independently extract from it foreign objects.
When to hurry to the doctor
Any wound can not be left without attention, so you should definitely contact a specialist if:
- bitten by a dog or other animal, especially poisonous;
- in the wound there is a foreign body;
- a long time can not stop bleeding;
- the wound is very deep and does not heal for a long time;
- the injured place began to fester;
- the general condition worsened, the body temperature increased;
- if the wound is on the head or in the mouth.
Be attentive to your health. If you have received tissue damage, first aid should be given as soon as possible. Treatment of the wound will promote its rapid healing. A timely call to a doctor, in case of serious injury, will preserve your health.