Emergency care for hyperglycemic coma: the algorithm of actions
Hyperglycemic coma occurs in people with diabetes mellitus when non-adherence to therapeutic treatment and an incorrect lifestyle.
What it is?
Diabetes mellitus is a disease in whichthe main hormone of the pancreas is insulin. It is he who participates in the conversion of incoming sugar into glucose. With the accumulation of sugar in the human body, it is excreted through the urine. To prevent this from happening, patients with diabetes must enter intramuscularly injections of insulin.
If the dosage is not followed or thethe supply of blood sugar can increase. And when the concentration reaches the limit, a hyperglycemic coma sets in. Emergency care, the algorithm of actions in which a person can save, must be provided immediately. But in medicine, hyperglycemic coma is distinguished among people who do not have diabetes mellitus. They can be attributed to the risk zone of this disease. After all, an increase in the sugar content in the blood - this is the first signs of improper operation of the pancreas.
These include patients with cirrhosis of the liver, tumors of the endocrine system, poor assimilation of carbohydrate food.
After diagnosing a sugardiabetes, a schedule of injections. The dosage is selected, as a rule, permanently, under the supervision of doctors. The patient should strictly follow the dosage and adhere to the prescribed schedule. Passing the introduction of insulin threatens to raise blood sugar, which will require urgent help with hyperglycemic coma.
It is important to keep a diet in the diet, not to eat fat,fried, smoked, salted, do not drink alcohol. Sugary products are replaced by special diabetic, where fructose is used. Deviation from a diet can trigger a sharp jump in blood sugar.
After the injection, the patient must eat. Diabetics are prescribed fractional meals. If you do not adhere to this rule, then again, it is possible to increase glucose.
Symptoms of coma
Emergency care for hyperglycemic coma is extremely important. But first, let's look at its main features.
In medicine, distinguish the pre-coma of a patient with diabetes mellitus, which can last one to two days. Main features:
- general weakness;
- strong thirst;
- the smell of acetone from the mouth;
- dry skin;
- frequent urination;
- pain in the eyeballs;
- loss of consciousness.
If you do not pay attention to these signs in timeand do not take appropriate measures, this condition threatens to lose consciousness, which in some cases leads to death. Increased blood sugar levels are accompanied by itching and scaling of the skin, in contrast to the lowered level. If the patient time to pay attention to the above characteristics and begin to systematically inject insulin, it will save his life.
First aid first aid
Correct provision of emergency careA hyperglycemic coma can save a person's life. I just want to point out that only medical personnel should help the patient in a state of coma. But, if it happened that a person lost consciousness, convulsions started in him, immediately call for an ambulance.
Before the arrival of the medical team put the patient on one side and use a spoon or other long object to fix the tongue. This is a necessary step in order to avoid language sagging and, consequently, strangulation.
If a person has convulsive twitchings or convulsions, make sure that he does not hit. To do this, hold the limb of the patient in the position on the side.
This is what is the emergency care for hyperglycemic coma. The algorithm of therapeutic care and hospital treatment will be considered further.
After the arrival of the medical team,urgent hospitalization in the intensive care unit. If the patient has a glucometer, the blood sugar level is measured and the following actions are taken at the site. Insulin is injected subcutaneously, its dosage is calculated on the basis of the glucometer readings, and the patient is hospitalized.
Properly diagnosed is very importanthyperglycemic coma, symptoms, the first aid at which cardinally differ from hypoglycemic. If you mistakenly make a diagnosis, you can not have time to save a person.
Already directly in the intensive care unit intravenouslya solution of sodium chloride and glucose is introduced. If the condition of the patient is of moderate severity, then the insulin dose is one hundred units, if heavy - about one hundred and fifty, and in extremely severe - about two hundred. Insulin, which is injected, should be short-acting, for rapid absorption into the blood.
Also after diagnosis of the respiratory tract andmeasurement of blood pressure is selected treatment. In severe cases, the patient is connected to an artificial respiration apparatus. At low pressure, the appropriate drugs are injected intravenously.
Particular attention to one's illness
After receiving the diagnosis of "diabetes mellitus"the patient must be treated with maximum responsibility. The district doctor endocrinologist explains the principles of self-care. This is timely injections of insulin, fractional nutrition, diet, blood test.
It is important to keep blood glucose under control, for this diabetics use a glucometer. Ideally, take measurements twice a day, according to which to change the dosage of insulin.
Always have a diabeticshould be with a pocket of clothes. This will help in case you need emergency help in hyperglycemic coma. For cases of hypoglycemic coma (lowering the blood sugar level), have something sweet at hand. It can be honey in a stick or jam.
Do not miss insulin techniques, and if this happens, then monitor the sugar level before stabilization.
Important information for relatives and friends
People who are close to diabetic patients should know the general information about the disease so that urgent help is given in case of hyperglycemic coma or hypoglycemic.
If the patient is unconscious before your eyes,immediately call for an ambulance. And before their arrival, take care that the language does not stain - how, we already told. It is not superfluous to measure sugar glucometer before the arrival of doctors, so as not to waste time and help faster.
In a state of coma, without assistance, a personcan live a maximum of 24 hours. Therefore, pay more attention to those close to this disease. Emergency care for hyperglycemic coma in children does not differ from an adult. Differences only in the dosage of drugs and the duration of inpatient treatment.