Venous bleeding: differences from other types of blood loss and stopping rules
Often, when you receive an injury with piercing-cutting objects, as a result of a violation of the integrity of blood vessels, bleeding occurs.
Types of bleeding:
- Capillary bleeding (minor capillary vessels are injured, located on the surface of the skin). Blood with capillary bleeding is of a purely scarlet color.
- Venous bleeding (occurs when the integrity of large vessels, called veins) is violated. With venous bleeding, the blood has a dark red color.
- Arterial bleeding (occurs whenviolation of the integrity of the largest vessels, called arteries). The danger of arterial bleeding lies in the fact that the blood coming out by jerks under high pressure is very difficult to stop quickly.
- Mixed bleeding.
On the second place on the danger to life, as alreadydiscussed above, there is venous bleeding. Unlike capillary blood is pushed out of the vessels under great pressure. Blood with this type of bleeding comes out in large volumes, and if you do not know how to get first aid for venous bleeding, you can "lose" a person.
The patient can be saved if venous bleeding can be stopped in time, and blood loss is not more than 1000 ml.
When a large artery ruptures a person in a matter of minutes can lose more than 1000 ml of blood, which will lead to an imminent death.
First aid should be given beforethe victim will lose blood in a volume exceeding the permissible (500 ml) limit. Otherwise, further blood loss will lead if not to death, then to a long recovery of the organism of the victim and a long rehabilitation period.
When helping older people, whose agemore than 70 years, we must remember that venous bleeding, even in small volumes for them, is very dangerous, since by this age people tend to have a "bouquet" of diseases, including age, that greatly weaken the body. The same applies to young children, but the danger lies in the fact that children have a relatively small mass and blood loss, small by the standards for an adult, can be very costly for them, since the immunity has not yet been fully developed, and the weakened organism is susceptible penetration of viruses.
In any type of bleeding, the victim must provide first aid. In order not to harm, it is necessary to accurately be able to determine the type of bleeding.
From capillary venous bleeding is easydistinguished by the following features: the blood has a dark, dirty red color, from the vein to the surface it leaves slowly with continuous pulsating jerks. The greatest danger to life is damage to the jaundiced, femoral and subclavian veins.
Venous bleeding can be both open (when getting wounds with piercing-cutting objects), and internal. The prerequisite for internal venous bleeding is varicose veins.
If a person has open venous bleeding,first aid is to apply a pressure bandage. The pressure bandage should be placed slightly below the wound. This is due to the fact that the blood flow through the veins goes from the peripheral vessels to the heart. As dressing material, in the absence of an individual dressing bag, you can use clean bandages, gauze, or any clean cloth that is currently available.
It is necessary to fix the pressure bandage so that it does not move out, very carefully. For tight and strong fixation, each subsequent bandage tour should overlap the previous one by 50 - 70%.
To determine the correctness of superposition of the pressingyou need to see if there is bleeding. In the absence of bleeding, check for pulsation in the vein below the pressure bandage. If there is a pulse, everything is done right.
If the bleeding continues, on top of alreadyfixed bandage make a new one in compliance with all previously described steps. Bandage should be very tight. In order to restore blood flow to the damaged area, put an ice pack on top of the pressure bandage for 10-15 minutes. Call an ambulance.