Diseases of the esophagus
Despite the simple (to some extent) structure of the esophagus, it performs very important tasks. Its main function is to deliver a lump of food into the stomach through the digestive tract.
The emerging diseases of the esophagus can easilygo to the anatomical areas that are next to it. Near this organ are such vital parts of the human body as: carotid artery, aorta, pleura, trachea and others. In addition, surgical intervention in his area is greatly hindered by difficult access to it. However, some diseases of the esophagus, for example, peptic ulcer or achalasia, are treated with physiotherapy, diet or medication. It should be noted that today the involvement of surgeons is carried out only in cases of extreme necessity.
The most accessible method of instrumentalStudies in the occurrence of a disease of the esophagus is considered radiographic examination. Thus the patient swallows a lump of a contrast substance that allows to reveal contours of an organ and to trace its peristalsis. X-ray examination is carried out in oblique projections of the body, in view of the fact that under the direct projection of the translucence, the shadow of the esophagus layers on the shadow of the mediastinum. The horizontal position of the patient allows more accurate evaluation of the manifestations, diverticula and polyps of the organ.
Diseases of the esophagus, as a rule, are accompanied byfeeling of bursting, pressure or fullness beyond the sternum. Dysphagia, pain, regurgitation or belching are also observed. Attacks of severe cough, hiccough, heartburn or bleeding are less frequent.
Dysphagia makes swallowing and movement difficulta lump of food along the esophagus and in the pharynx. In connection with these difficulties, pain occurs. Delay in food can be caused by a violation (weakening) of the muscle tone, the formation of cicatricial narrowing, germinating tumor or external compression of the esophagus. Delayed food irritates the walls of the organ, causing compression in the adjacent organs of the mediastinum, plexus and nerve trunks.
The onset of pain may be associated with severe cardiac spasm, cancerous lesions, or peptic ulcers of the esophagus.
An eructation can occur in a healthy person. It occurs due to ingestion of air when eating. Often, the ingestion of a large amount of air is characteristic of persons suffering from a neurosis. Hyper secretion of the stomach causes an eructation with acidic contents.
When esophageal vomiting in the vomit contains the chewed, processed only mucus and saliva food. Vomiting can occur with tilts, bends on the side or in the horizontal position of the trunk.
When thrown into the conducting body of acidic gastric contents arises heartburn (burning sensation and heat).
The formation of esophageal-tracheal or esophageal-bronchial fistulas is the result of the development of an abscess or tumor of the esophagus.
Bleeding associated with varicose veinsenlargement (with cirrhosis of the liver, increased pressure in the portal vein system), ulcer in the conducting organ or disintegrating tumor. As a result, exhaustion develops and rapidly develops.
In cases of swallowing disorders, for preventionnarrowing and scarring with a chemical burn are designated as bougie of the esophagus. This technique is the blocking of the organ with the help of rubber probes. Determination of the degree of narrowing of the esophagus is performed with x-rays. Buzhirovanie is contraindicated for patients in serious condition. Contraindication is necrotic esophagitis (acute inflammation), since complications in the form of its exacerbation occur quite often. At the same time on the extractable probe there are traces of blood.