Types of bleeding, first aid for bleeding. What to do if bleeding occurs
Stop bleeding - this is the first thingsay instructors in the training of pre-hospital care for injuries and accidents. What kinds of bleeding happen and first aid with them - that's what will be discussed below.
Types of bleeding
First, let's look at what bleeding is andthan it is dangerous. In medicine, several classifications are distinguished. In this case, the familiar bleeding from an injured arm or leg is just a special case.
Types of bleeding. The first help in bleeding depends on what the vessel was damaged, in what place and how much the bleeding is intense.
Separation in the place of leakage of blood:
Separation according to the type of damaged vessels:
By the nature of the process that caused bleeding:
- easy - up to 500 ml;
- average - up to 1 liter;
- heavy - up to 1.5 liters;
- massive - up to 2.5 liters;
- lethal - up to 3 liters (which is 50-60% of the total blood volume);
- absolutely fatal: from 3 to 3.5 liters (of the total volume of more than 60%).
For young children, a blood loss of about 250 ml is considered dangerous.
Common signs of bleeding
In the case of loss of blood, there are common symptoms:
- weak pulse;
- lowering blood pressure;
- fainting condition.
In severe cases, hypovolemic shock develops, caused by a decrease in the amount of blood in the vascular bed and insufficient blood supply to vital organs by oxygen.
Methods of assisting with external bleeding
When providing pre-hospital care,called temporary stopping methods. Depending on what kind of bleeding, first aid for bleeding may include the following techniques.
- Overlapping the harness. Use a rubber tourniquet. It is imposed in case of damage to the arteries of the extremities or extensive bleeding, not stopped by other methods. The first coil is tightly placed, a few cm above the place of bleeding. Place a cloth under the tourniquet so that the limb will not be injured. The next turns are done with minimal tension, fix the tourniquet, leaving it in a conspicuous place. Apply a note with the indication of time - you can not squeeze the artery more than 2 hours.
- Before applying the tourniquet or in case the damage is inaccessible, the artery is squeezed, pressing with the thumb or fist to the bone ledge above the injury site.
- Maximizing the limb, squeeze the vessel. In this case, a tissue roller, bandage or a small cylindrical object is laid in the folding place for better squeezing.
- To the damaged site, ice is applied through the tissue to cause narrowing of all the vessels.
- A tampon and a pressure bandage are used for weakbleeding. The tampon, if necessary, is moistened with cold water, a solution of 3% hydrogen peroxide, or a hemostatic sponge is used. When impregnating the bandage with blood, a new one is placed over the old one.
If there are serious types of bleeding,first aid should be provided as soon as possible. Sometimes the account goes for minutes. How to understand how dangerous the situation is? For this it is necessary to distinguish one type of bleeding from another.
Arterial damage causes dangerous speciesbleeding. The first aid in bleeding from the main vessel is to pinch the artery with a finger, flexing the limb, or applying a tourniquet. If the corrective measures are performed correctly, then the bleeding immediately stops, when the tourniquet is applied, the limb below the place turns pale, becomes cold.
In case of damage to the artery, death fromBlood loss can occur within 10 - 15 minutes. With injuries of the carotid and femoral artery this time is shortened. How to distinguish arterial bleeding? The blood is bright red, flowing with a strong pulsating trickle.
Venous bleeding: first aid, types and signs, ways to stop differ from the arterial in the following points.
- The blood has a dark cherry hue, it flows out with a continuous trickle or oozing.
- For extensive injuries and massive bleeding, a tourniquet is applied, in other cases it is sufficient to bend the limb or apply a pressure bandage.
Capillary bleeding, first aid in bleeding, types of first aid are similar to those with venous.
- The blood oozes out of the wound, the color is neutral red.
- The method of stopping is a pressure bandage, cold, tamponade.
Such vascular damage is dangerous only with internal bleeding or poor blood clotting.
Bleeding from the nose
There is such a pathology with different systemicdiseases, injuries, fever, sunstroke, overstrain, circulatory disorders, diseases and defects of the nasal cavity. Perhaps with excitement and stress. It often occurs in young children and adolescents during hormonal changes in the body.
If someone has epistaxis, first aid in bleeding, the types and ways of stopping it are as follows.
- Breathe only through the mouth.
- Do not swallow blood.
- Clamp the nostrils for 5-10 minutes.
- Put a cold compress on the nose, on the back of the head.
- Gently put the cotton wool in the nose, moistened with 3% hydrogen peroxide solution.
When applying a cold compress, tampons keep your head in a slightly upturned state. In other cases, slightly tilt to allow the blood to flow out of the nose, and not fall into the throat.
If the bleeding does not stop within 15 minutes, you must call an ambulance.
Types of bleeding, first aid in bleeding into the internal cavity of the body, their signs.
- Blood enters the lungs - causes swelling of the lung,coughing up blood. When bleeding into the pleural cavity - difficulty breathing due to squeezing the lung. The victim is given a semi-sitting position, his legs are bent, a roller is placed under his knees.
- When blood enters the abdominal cavity, there are common signs of bleeding, abdominal tenderness. The position of the victim - lying on his back, legs are half-bent.
- In both cases, place ice on the site of the alleged bleeding, provide sufficient fresh air. Preserve the immobility of the victim.
- When blood flows into the muscles, bloating and bruising form.
All cases of internal bleeding require immediate hospitalization.
Various types of bleeding and first aid withviolations in the reproductive system of the female body require qualified medical care. The uterus is abundantly supplied with blood vessels, and it is not so easy to stop bleeding. This requires the introduction of drugs and often surgical interventions.
Uterine bleeding is possible with inflammatory and degenerative processes in the uterus, hormonal disorders, pregnancy.
Measures to provide first aid:
- Take the supine position, raise the legs, placing a pillow under them.
- On the bottom of the stomach put an ice pack or a bottle of cold water, through a cloth. Ice hold for 10-15 minutes, then take a break for 5 minutes. Total keep the cold about 1-2 hours.
- To compensate for blood loss, a generous drink is recommended.
In marching conditions, first aid is very importantbleeding. Extreme medicine implies the provision of competent care in circumstances where it is impossible to quickly contact a doctor. When planning tourism trips, practicing various sports, hunting, fishing, you should have at your disposal a minimal set of medical products - first-aid kit. To stop bleeding, you need a tourniquet, a bandage, and disinfectants. A three per cent solution of hydrogen peroxide not only disinfects the wound, but also helps stop the bleeding. To compress the vessels of the limbs, you can use the available tools: a clean cotton cloth, handkerchiefs, a scarf, belt, clothing. Instead of a tourniquet, you can impose a twist using a strip of cloth and a stick.
In any case, if bleeding occursit is necessary to determine its type and degree of danger, if necessary, squeeze the vessel with a finger and prepare the means for stopping bleeding. If the injured person is seriously injured, he should be taken to the medical station and then to the hospital. Counting on qualified medical care, you need to have a sufficient level of knowledge to help yourself and your loved ones, if necessary. After all, in some cases, an ambulance can arrive only after a few hours, and sometimes it is necessary to deliver the victim to the nearest settlement independently.