Hemotransfusion shock and its consequences
Hemotransfusion shock is manifested in the firstminutes with the introduction into the human body of the blood of an incompatible group. This condition is characterized by reddening of the face, increased pulse, difficulty breathing, a drop in blood pressure, a violation of the cardiovascular system, loss of consciousness and involuntary deviations of urine and feces.
Causes of posttransfusion shock
Blood transfusion shock occurs with transfusionincompatible blood if the group, Rhesus factor or other isoserological features were identified incorrectly. Also, shock can be caused by transfusion of compatible blood in those cases if:
- insufficiently studied the condition of the patient;
- the blood used for transfusion is inadequate;
- there is incompatibility of the recipient and donor proteins.
Blood transfusion shock
In most cases, immediately after the medicalthe patient's condition improves temporarily, but later there is a picture of serious damage to the kidneys and liver, which sometimes ends in a fatal outcome. Acute renal dysfunction is accompanied by the appearance of blood in the urine, further reduction and complete cessation of urination. It is also possible to observe the appearance of signs of intravascular hemolysis and acute renal dysfunction.
Depending on the patient's pressure level, three stages of posttransfusion shock are distinguished:
- 1-st - pressure up to 90 mm Hg. p.
- 2 nd - up to 70 mm Hg. p.
- 3rd - below 70 mm Hg. Art.
The degree of severity of the state of hemotransfusion shock and its consequences directly depend on the disease itself, on the patient's condition, age, narcosis and the number of transfused blood.
Emergency care for blood transfusion shock
When a patient develops a blood transfusion shock, he needs the following emergency help:
- Introduction of sympatholytic, cardiovascular and antihistamines, corticosteroids and inhalation of oxygen.
- Transfusion of polyglucin, blood of a suitable group in a dosage of 250-500 ml or plasma in the same amount. The introduction of a solution of bicarbonate 5% or a solution of sodium lactate 11% in an amount of 200-250 ml.
- A circumferential bilateral blockade of novocaine by A.Vishnevsky (administration of a 0.2-0.0% novocain solution in an amount of 60-100 ml).
In most cases, such anti-shock measures lead to an improvement in the patient's condition.
Treatment of blood transfusion shock
But the main anti-shock action isexchange blood transfusion as the most effective remedy to prevent kidney damage at an early stage of complication. Exchange transfusion is performed only after a thorough examination of the donor and recipient. For this procedure, only fresh blood is used at a dosage of 1500-2000 ml.
Blood transfusion shock in acute stage requiresimmediate treatment. With the development of anuria with azotemia, the device "artificial kidney" is currently successfully used, with the help of which the patient's blood is purged of toxic products.