Philosophy of the New Time
The main period to which the modern philosophy, is the 17-18 century. For this stage of development of philosophical thought, there are several directions. This is the English philosophy of the 17th century (empiricism), headed by Fr. Bacon (1561-1626), Hobbes, Locke; rationalism led by Descartes (1596-1650), Leibniz, Spinoza; the philosophy of enlightenment of the 18th century (Voltaire, Montesquieu, Diderot, Rousseau); French materialism of the 18th century (Lameter, Holbach, Helvetius).
The philosophy of modern times can be given so. Intensive development of sciences leads to the acquisition of objects, harmoniously derived laws. Each of the sciences is defined with its subject, problems that determine its nature and nature. Particularly noticeable is the tendency of the division of science and philosophy.
The main problem of sciences is cognitionnature. Science begins to explore the world, which is understood as a nature that exists according to its laws. At the same time, philosophy turns into a field of knowledge about the world, inventing and discovering specific laws of physical phenomena. It actually turns into an experimental science. Social and scientific revolutions contributed to the emergence of two main directions, of which the philosophy of the new time was developing: empiricism and rationalism.
Empiricism as the direction of philosophy was an area of the theory of knowledge, which recognizes the paramount importance of sensory experience as the main source of knowledge.
In turn, within empiricism, suchdirections as idealistic and materialistic empiricism. Idealistic empiricism is headed by J. Berkeley (1685-1753), Hume (1711-1776). According to this direction, experience represents a common set of representations, feelings and the magnitude of the world equal to the magnitude of experience. The second direction within empiricism was materialistic empiricism, which was approved by F. Bacon and T. Hobbes. Representatives of this trend believed that the source of human experience is the external world.
Rationalism brought to the fore the logical essence of science, the source of knowledge and the main criterion of truth called intelligence.
The rationalistic philosophy of modern times alsoThere were several separate currents within the general direction. The doctrine of knowledge is called epistemology. Rationalism in the philosophy of modern times was based on this concept. Man in his being changes the world around him. Society refers to the world from a practical point of view. Man for his own being must change the world around him. In order for this change to be optimal, it must be controlled by cognition.
Gnoseology must find out the nature of the humancognition, its laws, goals and opportunities. She studies the mechanisms of cognitive activity, explores the structure of knowledge, the role of social and biological cognition factors, and so on. Epistemology is connected with psychology, cybernetics, linguistics and many other sciences.
In this way, the philosophy of modern times first comprehended the paradox of science through epistemological systems of empiricism and rationalism. Science began to be understood as a system of real true knowledge. Empiricists saw the source of knowledge in experience, rationalists in the mind. I. Kant tried to synthesize these views.
During the modern period, the main plan wasinductive methods of cognition are put forward. Between philosophy and science in modern times a very close relationship was established, which led to the formation of a full-fledged scientific picture of the world.
Science from this period becomes a means, withThe help of which philosophy knew the world. It has become an integral part of the subject of philosophical thinking. Therefore, the image of the world, man and science itself changed greatly. Science opens the world of nature to people and helps the development of civilization in general.