Classification of innovations
Innovative development of industry canconsider an important component for a stable economic situation in any country. However, not all modifications of the technological process or products can be attributed to this category, so it is worthwhile to elaborate on the types of innovations and to classify them.
Depending on how innovation is introduced into the technological process, innovation is singled out:
In the first case, new materials are used,semi-finished products and components, as a result of which fundamentally new products are obtained. Process innovations provide new approaches to both the organization of activities at the enterprise and the introduction of a new high-performance technology.
Classification of innovations can be cited independing on the novelty of the market. In particular, they highlight scientific developments, which appeared for the first time in the world, in the country and at a specific enterprise. Obviously, the first species has the highest value. At the same time, depending on the coverage of the expected market share, they can be local, systemic and strategic.
Classification of innovations can be based on a placenew development in the enterprise system. Such scientific development can make changes in the structure and principle of the enterprise itself. Here distinguish innovation:
- at the entrance of the enterprise, which change the raw materials used, materials, machinery, equipment and other important moments at the initial stage of production;
- at the output of the enterprise - affect the final result of production activities;
- system structure of the enterprise, modifying the management, production and technological components
Classification of innovations depends on the degree of product change. Here distinguish
- radical (basic), which are fundamentallymodify the quality of the services provided or the goods produced. Here, in practice, discoveries and major inventions are introduced that allow the production of a new generation of equipment or the introduction of new technology;
- Improving, for the implementation of which middle-level inventions are involved;
- Modification (private) only slightly improve the individual parameters of the product or organization of production.
The classification of innovations can also beby the degree of prevalence of innovation. In particular, single and diffuse scientific developments are singled out. Depending on continuity, innovations can be substituting, canceling, reflexive, opening, retrovovedeniyami.
Of course, the listed types of innovations and theirclassification are not final and will be constantly expanded and supplemented. However, it can be argued that in whatever field the enterprise operates, it is always possible to select a science-intensive product for it, which will increase its profitability.
No less interesting is the classification of innovativeprojects. They, as a rule, differ depending on the level of scientific and technical importance. For example, a modernizing innovation project is singled out, during the development of which no fundamental change in the basic design or technology takes place. Innovative (or improving) scientific activity allows to make essential changes in available technologies and designs. However, the most commercial benefit should be the implementation of an advanced and pioneering innovation project that envisages the introduction of correspondingly advanced technical developments and newly created materials, structures and technologies that are capable of performing new functions.