Internal and foreign policy of Yaroslav the Wise. The policy of Yaroslav the Wise in relation to the church
Yaroslav the Wise - Kiev prince who ruledduring the years 1019-1054. Also took the place of the ruler of Rostov and Novgorod lands. He was one of the sons of the baptizer of Rus Vladimir the Great. Mother of Yaroslav - Princess Rogneda Rogolvodna of Polotsk.
Biography of the prince
The future ruler was born around 980. At the baptism he was given the name of George. The prince's wife was Olav Ingygerda, the daughter of a Swedish king. After the Battle of the Leaf, the internal and foreign policy of Yaroslav the Wise was aimed at increasing the popularity of Christianity among the people. Thus, he continued the work of his father.
He got the nickname Wise for himlegislative and educational matters. As a child, a little Yaroslav was limping, because at birth one leg was slightly shorter than the other. Because of this physical peculiarity, the father did not take the boy with him to hunt.
To somehow entertain himself, Yaroslav foundsolace in reading books. Thanks to this, he became the first educated person who knew the letter. You can also find in ancient sources information about the prince, where he was called "Lame". True, it was not the Slavs of Kiev who called it, but the enemies.
Internal and foreign policy of Yaroslav the Wise distinguished himself with prudence and benefited the Russian people. That is why at that time the rightness of expression was strengthened: "Lame means wise".
The first period of Yaroslav's life was the struggle forKiev. When he reached adulthood, Vladimir Svyatoslavich appointed him Rostov prince. After the sudden death of Vysheslav, Yaroslav the Wise became a Novgorod ruler.
When Vladimir the Great died, between his sonsa struggle arose for the throne of Kiev. The events of the internecine war are described in The Tale of Bygone Years. Kiev was captured by Svyatopolk I Cursed, who was a Turov prince. He, having the goal to remove all rivals, kills the brothers Yaroslav the Wise. And he would have reached the last, but the prince of Kiev warned of the danger of his sister Predslav.
At the beginning of his reign, the prince invested a great deal of effort in raising the literacy of his subjects. In Novgorod, a school for boys was founded, in which children were taught church affairs.
He bought folios, and the monks translated them. Soon these books began to serve as textbooks for Slavic people. During excavations, historians discovered manuscripts in which children were taught spelling.
The internal policy of Yaroslav the Wise, briefly, was also aimed at urban development. The capital of Kievan Rus in beauty, one might say, competed with Constantinople.
In honor of the long-awaited victory over the nomads inIn 1037 the famous St. Sophia Cathedral was erected. Thus, Kiev came to the same level as Byzantium, where there also existed temples with this name. No less significant cathedrals were built in Yuryev, Pskov and other Russian cities. Yaroslav the Wise also founded such cities as Yaroslavl (one is in Poland, the other - on the Volga).
The prince's foreign policy
The ruler of Kievan Rus in the first placeworried about the safety of the inhabitants of the state, because neighboring principalities also strove to conquer large areas. Therefore, the internal and foreign policy of Yaroslav the Wise consisted in strengthening the defense, but not by erecting castles and walls around the country, but by non-aggression treaties, campaigns and bribes.
Also, the prince cared about the authority of the statein the international arena. First, Yaroslav and Mstislav made a campaign against Poland, during which they repulsed the Cherven cities. Later, he was interested in the Baltics, where the Chudi tribe lived. Here in 1030 the prince founded the city of Yuryev, now it is called Tartu.
Having created a single army from Novgorod, Kievsquads and hired Varangians, he dealt a devastating blow to the Pechenegs. Similar trips were also carried out to Lithuania, Yatvingians, Mazovia and, of course, Byzantium. All of the above campaigns were successful, except the last. Most likely, because this campaign was led by the son of the Wise.
A special feature of his policy was the dynasticmarriages. He gave his sister and children for foreign monarchs and princes. He himself was married to the daughter of the Swedish ruler Olaf. His sister married the King of Poland - Casimir, daughter Anna became the wife of Henry I, Elizabeth - the wife of Harold the Bold, Anastasia - Andrew I. Sons Izyaslav and Vsevolod, in turn, became the husbands of the Polish and Byzantine princesses.
The development of culture in Kievan Rus
"The Tale of Bygone Years" is almostthe main source of information on the educational activities of the prince. It states that Yaroslav the Wise's policy in the field of culture was based on the translation of a large number of historical books from Greek into Russian. This is not surprising, since the ruler himself loved to read, because of what he was called Wise. Translations of books laid the foundation for the creation of the first library in the St. Sophia Cathedral, and hence the development of science and education among the peoples of Kievan Rus.
The Grand Duke created a collection of laws"Russian Truth". This arch became the main source of legal, economic and social relations of the Slavs. During his reign, painting and architecture developed.
Construction of temples
The policy of Yaroslav the Wise in relation to the churchwas positive, moreover, he tried in every possible way to spread Christianity among the people. On his orders in 1036-1037. were built the famous Golden Gate and the Church of the Annunciation. In addition, the Cathedral of St. Sophia and two monasteries - Saint George and Irina - were built. An example for these structures are the architectural buildings of Jerusalem and Constantinople.
Yaroslav the Wise made Illarion the first KievMetropolitan. It is not known for certain, in 1050 or in 1054 there was this event, but the main acts remain committed by this person. Illarion defended the independence of Russia from Constantinople and the independence of the Kyiv diocese.
What was the policy of Yaroslav the Wise? The conclusion from the received knowledge can be made the following: the lands of Kievan Rus prospered during the reign of the prince, it is indisputable. The actions of an intelligent ruler benefited people and for the good of the state.
Kiev strengthened the status of a strong state amongneighboring principalities, becoming the cultural, ecclesiastical and economic center of Europe. During his lifetime, he managed to leave behind not only cities and cathedrals, but also a testament for his sons with a call to avoid civil strife.
If the internal and foreign policy of Yaroslav the Wise became, in a small part, an example for his successors, then Kievan Rus could be one of the foremost states in Europe.