Which structure has the protozoan cell? Detailed description
Do you know which structure has the protozoan cell? If not, then this article is for you.
What science is studying the cell?
This science is called cytology.It is a branch of biology. She also can answer the question, what structure does the cell of protozoa have. Also, this science studies not only the structure, but also the processes that occur in the cell. This cellular respiration, metabolism, reproduction and photosynthesis. The method of multiplication of the protozoa is simple cell division. Some protozoa cells are capable of photosynthesis - the production of organic substances from inorganic substances. Cellular respiration occurs during the breakdown of glucose. This is the main function of simple carbohydrates in the cell. When they are oxidized, the cell receives energy.
Who are the simplest?
Before considering the question of what structure the simplest cell has, let's see what these "creatures" are.
These are organisms that consist of a single cell. They are also called eukaryotes, since there is a nucleus in their cells. The cell of the protozoa is much like a cell of a multicellular organism.
There are six types of protozoa:
Representatives of the first type inhabit saline ponds. Some species can also live in the soil.
Sporotics are mainly represented by parasites of vertebrates.
Radiolarians, like infusorians, live in the oceans. They have hard shells of silicon dioxide, from which some rocks form.
The peculiarity of sunflowers is that they move by means of pseudopods.
Sarkozhgutikontsy also use this mode of movement. This type includes amoeba and many other protozoa.
Flagellae are represented by a variety of differentorganisms that are used to move flagella. Some species of such protozoa can live in water bodies, and some are parasites. In addition, many representatives of this type in the cells are present chloroplasts. Such protozoa themselves produce the nutrients necessary for life by means of photosynthesis.
Which structure has the protozoan cell?
The structure of the cell can be divided into three mainparts: plasma membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus. The number of nuclei in the cells of the protozoa is one. In this they differ from bacterial cells, which generally do not have nuclei. So, let's consider in detail each of the three components of the cell.
The structure of the protozoan cells is compulsoryprovides for the presence of this component. It is responsible for maintaining the homeostasis of the cell, protecting it from the effects of the external environment. The plasma membrane consists of three classes of lipids: phospholipids, glycolipids and cholesterol. The phospholipids predominate in the membrane structure.
Cytoplasm: how is it arranged?
This is the whole part of the cell, with the exception of the nucleus,which is located inside the plasma membrane. It consists of hyaloplasm and organoids, as well as inclusions. Hyaloplasma is the internal environment of the cell. Organoids are permanent structures that perform certain functions, and inclusions are non-permanent structures that perform a mostly storing function.
The structure of the protozoan cells: organoids
In the protozoan cell there are manyorganoids that are characteristic of animal cells. In addition, unlike cells of multicellular organisms, most protozoan cells have movement organoids - all kinds of flagella, cilia, and other structures. The presence of such formations can boast very few cells of multicellular animals - only spermatozoa.
To organoids that are present in cellsprotozoa, include mitochondria, ribosomes, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex. In the cells of some protozoa also there are chloroplasts, which are characteristic for plant cells. Consider the structure and functions of each of them in the table.
|Mitochondria||They have two membranes: external and internal, between which there is an intermembrane space. The inner membrane has outgrowths - cristae or crests. All the main chemical reactions take place on them. What is inside both membranes is called a matrix. In it, these organoids have their own ribosomes, inclusions, mitochondrial RNA and mitochondrial DNA.||Energy production. In these organoids the process of cellular respiration takes place.|
|Ribosomes||Consist of two subunits. Do not have membranes. One of the subunits has a larger size than the second. Ribosomes are combined only in the process of functioning. When the organoid does not function, the two subunits are separated.||Synthesis of proteins (translation process).|
|Lysosomes||Have a rounded shape. They have one membrane. Inside the membrane are enzymes, which are necessary for the cleavage of complex organic substances.||Cellular digestion.|
|Endoplasmic reticulum||Tubular shape.||Participates in metabolism, is responsible for the synthesis of lipids.|
|Golgi Complex||A stack of disk-shaped tanks.||Serves for the synthesis of glycosaminoglycans, glycolipids. Modifies and classifies proteins.|
|Chloroplasts||They have two membranes with an intermembranespace between them. In the matrix are the thylakoids, combined in stacks (granules are lamellas, in addition, the matrix contains ribosomes, inclusions, RNA and DNA.||Photosynthesis (occurs in thylakoids).|
|Vacuoles||Many protozoa inhabiting fresh water bodies have contractile vacuoles (spherical organoids with one membrane)||Pumping from the body of excess fluid.|
In addition, the cells of protozoa are provided with organoids of movement. These can be flagella and cilia. Depending on the species, the body can have both one and several flagella.