What is behavior? Behavior of animals and humans
What is behavior? Is it just a reaction of an individual or a group to an action, environment, people, any stimulus or something more? Human behavior is a term used to describe the actions of a person and their actions. Learning to observe and correctly understand it is an important part of psychology. And since science can not read thoughts or hidden emotions, it serves as a good reference from the very beginning of the study of discipline.
What is behavior?
In search of a more direct and effective explanationdevelopment of children's social behavior skills, psychologists came to the conclusion that observation modeling or training is the basis for the formation of children's behavioral reactions. A person acquires many adverse reactions, observing and listening to others. An example is a child who kicks other children after he witnessed this painting in the past, a student shaving his hair because his friends did so, or a boy who is always late for the lesson like other students. What is the behavior from this point of view? It turns out that this is the result of the display of observational learning, which includes modeling, imitation, subsidiary teaching, identification, copying, role play and other factors.
Behavior of animals
When studying the behavior of animals usedterm imprinting (according to Lorentz), which means the emergence of complex behavioral reactions as a result of influencing the corresponding object at a critical moment. For example, newly hatched ducklings will follow the first moving object that they encounter and tie. As a rule, this is their mother. What is the behavior of animals? It can be defined as an internally oriented system of adaptation measures that promote survival and reproduction.
Ethology is a science that studies behavioranimals. Insects have always been popular as subjects for behavioral research, because in comparison with vertebrates they have a relatively simple arranged nervous system. In addition, they exhibit discrete reactions to external stimuli, but they are also characterized by spontaneous activity related to internal physiological needs.
Many people use the term "instinct" asa synonym for congenital, genetically programmed behavior. Individuals inherit a set of reactions in the same way as some physical traits, such as body color and wing venation. That is, they are encoded in DNA and passed on to the next generation. Since congenital behavior is hereditary, it is subject to genetic changes as a result of mutation, recombination and natural selection, and also has an evolutionary history.
What can be said about a man's behavior? If you watch for a while a group of children playing, you can see how they laugh and run, fight. They can form small groups, where the leader takes responsibility, while others obey him. Important here are the individual characteristics, as well as sensations and thinking. Their actions can also tell more about their relationship with each other. Figuratively speaking, human behavior is a story to the world about what is happening inside.
And if there is not everything in order, then societyis confronted with deviant behavior. What is human behavior? This is a set of actions in everyday life or a certain situation. There are several types of social behavior. At the present time, those species that are relevant to the manifestation of good and evil, love and hatred, a thirst for success and power, an overestimated or underestimated self-esteem have become especially significant for the society.
What it is? Psychologists say: a set of actions and actions that does not meet social norms and values and causes a negative reaction from the public is called deviant. The reasons for this behavior can be problems in the family, reluctance and inability to learn, the level of intelligence is below average and many others. It can be viewed on two levels. The first includes minor offenses, violation of moral norms, rules of conduct in public places. This also includes refusing to participate in socially useful activities, alcohol abuse, propensity to addiction, substance abuse and so on. The second kind of deviant behavior is antisocial behavior that leads to crime and criminal responsibility.