Observation is what? Types of observations
What is observation? This is a research method that is used in psychology for an organized and purposeful perception and study of an object. It is used where the interference of the observer can disrupt the process of interaction of the individual with the environment. This method is especially needed when you need to get a full picture of what is happening and understand people's behavior.
What is observation?
Observation is a specially organized andfixed perception of an object. It can be indirect and direct, internal and external, not included and included, indirect and direct, selective and continuous, laboratory and field.
By its systematic nature, it is divided into:
1. Unsystematic Observation is the method by whicha generalized picture of the behavior of a group of people or an individual in certain conditions. In this case, the goal is not to fix the causal dependence and the formation of strict descriptions of phenomena.
2. The systematic, which is conducted according to a strictly defined plan. The researcher at the same time registers features of behavior and environmental conditions.
On fixed objects it is divided into:
1. Selective Observation is the way in which an observer captures only certain parameters of behavior.
2. Solid, in which the researcher captures all the features of behavior without exception.
According to the form of observation, they distinguish:
1. Conscious observation is the way in which the observeda person knows that they are watching him. In this case, the observed, as a rule, is aware of the research objectives. But there are cases when the object is informed of the false goals of observation. This is done because of ethical concerns about the findings.
Disadvantages of the conscious type of observation: the psychological influence of the observer on the object, because of which it is often necessary to make several observations of the object.
Features: the observer can influence the behavior and actions of the object, which, if thoughtlessly formulated, can greatly change the results; observed, in turn, may, due to some psychological reasons, give false actions for their usual, embarrassed or give vent to their emotions; this observation can not be carried out in a person's daily life.
This form of observation is convenient for a qualitative study of the behavior in a small group society. In this case, the presence of an observer becomes natural, which does not affect the results of the study in any way.
Disadvantages of unconscious observation: the difficulty of obtaining results; the researcher can be dragged into a conflict of values.
Features: the object under study does not know anything about what is being observed; the researcher gets a lot of information about the observed.
3. External unconsciousness observation is the way in which the researchedthe object does not know anything about the observation, and the observer himself works without direct contact with the object. This method is convenient because the observer does not hamper the behavior of the observed and does not provoke their false actions.