Cellular organoids are permanentstructures that ensure the performance of specific functions in the process of its life activity - growth and development, division and reproduction, etc. Eukaryotic (nuclear) cells of plants and animals have a similar structure and almost identical set of organelles, and prokaryotic (non-nuclear) cells have a primitive structure and are devoid of many organelles.
Cellular organoids, depending on the presencemembrane components, are divided into non-membrane and membrane ones. Non-membrane organelles include: ribosomes and centrioles and organoids of movement (microtubules and microfilaments). Ribosomes are rounded or elongated bodies consisting of two units - large and small. Uniting with each other, the ribosomes form polysomes. This organelle is present in both prokaryotic cells and eukaryotes. Ribosomes play a very important role, since they collect proteins from amino acids. Centrioles are hollow cylinders, which consist of triplets and microtubules. Centrioles form a cellular center, which takes part in cell division. The organoids of movement are hollow tubes or filaments that can freely meet in the cytoplasm or be part of flagella, cilia, or fission spindle.
Membrane organelle cells are divided into single and double-membrane. To single-membrane
include: EPS (endoplasmic membrane), Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vacuole (found in plants and unicellular animals).
Endoplasmic reticulum - extensive networkchannels and cavities that permeate the whole cell. It is divided into smooth and rough. Smooth EPS contains enzymes that are involved in carbohydrate and fat metabolism. Rough EPS participates in the synthesis of protein, which occurs in ribosomes attached to it.
The device (complex) Golgi is a stacked pile of cavity, which are connected with EPS. He actively participates in the metabolism and in the formation of lysosomes.
Lysosomes are small round bodies filled with an enzyme that can, if necessary, break down the "broken" organelles and whole cells. Performs a protective function.
Two-membrane organelles of the cell - mitochondria andinherent only to plants plastids. Their feature is the presence of two membranes, external and internal. External (external) membrane performs the function of exchange and communication of these organelles with other constituents of the cell, and the inner membrane forms folds, the space between them is filled with a matrix-liquid substance. The inner folds of the mitochondria are called cristae, and the plastid-chloroplasts are called granules. These cell organelles contain RNA and DNA. Mitochondria synthesize ATP, which subsequently serves as a source of energy. The function of plastids will depend on their coloring - colorless (or leukoplasts) store carbohydrates, in particular starch; yellow, orange, red (or chromoplasts) - give color to flowers and fruits; green chloroplasts - provide synthesis of ATP and carbohydrates.
The main organelles of the cell, combined with each other by the cytoplasm and membranes, form a single integrated system.