Buffalo water: description, habitat. Man and buffalo
As practice shows, in the animal kingdomShrewish morals and aggressiveness are often not predators, but representatives of large herbivores. For example, elephants, hippopotamuses, rhinoceroses and water buffalo (Indian or Asian), which will be discussed. This is one of the first domesticated animals. It has long been used as a traction force. The history of their breeding began in Ceylon more than 5 thousand years ago.
Description of the species
A large animal with an uneasy temper belongsto the genus of Asian buffalo, these are bulls of impressive size and threatening appearance. An adult in length grows to three meters, while at the withers it reaches a height of 2 m, and the weight fluctuates around 1000 kg. The most formidable weapon is the horns, which grow 1.5-2 m long. They are laid back and slightly apart, shaped like half-moon with a flattened section. Female horns are often absent or small in size.
Water buffalo, photo of which is presented inarticle, has a dense physique, color blue-black, legs half white, powerful structure. The shape of the head is elongated and as if slightly lowered, the tail is long, ending with a large brush. The animal has a well-developed sense of smell, a sharp hearing, but a mediocre sight. This is a very serious opponent, who does not have a fear of either man or predators. Preparing for the attack, the male begins to actively kick the ground, while loudly snorting. The females are especially dangerous in the period when the calves are guarded.
Buffalo water: habitat
More recently, by historical standards(first millennium AD), this terrible animal could be found almost everywhere. The huge range of its habitat stretched from Mesopotamia to the lands of southern China, and in the 19th century it was brought to Australia and settled in the northern part of the continent. Now the animal can be found mainly in Asia: Nepal, Bhutan, Laos, Thailand, India, Cambodia and Sri Lanka. Until the middle of the twentieth century, they were found in Malaysia, but, apparently, were completely exterminated. At present, the number of wild Asian buffaloes in the wild continues to decline, the species is on the verge of total extinction.
Indian water buffalo did not receive its nameaccidentally. His way of life is closely connected with various water reservoirs with slowly flowing water or standing water, especially often he chooses reed and high-grass thickets along the coast, as well as marshy jungles and river valleys.
The herd grazes in the early morning and evening hours,when the street is still cool. The main diet (up to 70%) is aquatic vegetation. Hot days buffalo spend, plunging to the very head in the water or mud, often neighbors with rhinoceroses. An animal very badly suffers a heat as sweat glands extremely poorly developed. In the water it is safe, the body becomes light and stays static, and therefore the energy consumption slows down. This feature explains why the animal was called a "water buffalo", there is no such concept in the zoological taxonomy. What is the name of the water buffalo scientifically? This is an Asian or Indian buffalo, the largest bull on the planet.
Interestingly, they dive well and swim well. The invariable companions of the animals are the white herons and some other birds that sit on their back or head and pull mites and various parasites from the skin. In nature, everything is natural and mutually beneficial. Spending most of the time in the pond, the Asian buffalo (watery) fertilizes it. Manure is a natural fertilizer and supports the intensive growth of aquatic plants.
Virtually all hoofed animals areand the buffalo is no exception. They are kept, as a rule, in small groups, which include a leader - an old bull, several young males and a female with calves. The hierarchy in the herd is weakly expressed. The old male is kept in the distance, but when attacking predators or any other threat and escape, the flock controls the herd. When moving, a certain order is observed. Adult individuals go first, calves follow them, and then rearguard - young.
The tropical climate stipulates thatThe Indian buffalo (watery) does not have a specific breeding period. Pregnancy of the cow lasts about 300-340 days, always only one calf is born. The newborn has a soft fluffy fur bright yellow-brown color. Feeding with milk lasts up to six months, sometimes up to 9 months. After the calf is completely transferred to the fodder.
Disappearing from many places, the buffalo for todayThe day was preserved in Asia, but even there its number is steadily declining. The main reason for this - the destruction of natural habitats of animals, and not hunting, as it may seem at first glance. Of course, it also takes place, but is conducted in accordance with the law on allocated quotas. Population of deaf territories and plowing of lands, drainage of swamps - all this takes away the house from animals. The second factor is the crossing of wild individuals with domesticated ones, as a result of which the first lose their purity of blood. Avoid this circumstance is almost impossible, since the neighborhood with people is very close.
Asian buffalo (watery) has naturalenemies, but they are few. Attack and, importantly, to defeat an adult bull can only comb or swamp crocodiles, tigers. Many female predators, including leopards, wolves, are at risk of attacking females, calves and young animals. On some islands of Indonesia, it is known about the attack on the animals of large Komod monsters. Breaking the tendons of bulls, "Komodo dragons" literally live eating their prey. Calves are likely to die from heat or disease.
Buffalo and Man
People in ancient times domesticated thisa large and powerful representative of the buffalo genus. Now this bull is one of the main animals in the agriculture of the Asian region. Domestic individuals differ from wild animals not only in a calm and balanced manner, but also in physique. They have a saggy and strongly protruding belly, while the native species has a lean body and an aggressive character. The main sphere of application of the animal is as a draft force when cultivating rice fields. Meat is not used for food, as it is too hard, but milk has a high fat content, but the productivity of buffalo is several times less than that of simple cows.