The main functions of philosophy as a theoretical worldview
Most people who hear the word"Philosophy," it seems that this is something far from real life, a kind of boring mentalization. But there is also a different opinion, which argues that philosophy is very useful, and it should serve the interests of society, the state, religion, nation and so on. However, a public phenomenon that serves the needs of politics, economy, society or the state is just a truncated and often distorted part of philosophy, its surrogate, which is called ideology. But the main tasks of philosophy have nothing to do with this - it, as the modern classical philosopher Martin Heidegger wrote, does not teach anything, except that he teaches to think with his own example.
Philosophy is an organic parthuman culture, as well as science, law, art, ethics. Moreover, many of the above forms of social consciousness at one time grew out of it. First of all, philosophy was born from the attempts of humanity to explain and assimilate the surrounding world (in the spiritual and practical sense of the word). The experience of the history of philosophy, which lasts almost three thousand years, as well as the corresponding tendencies and discoveries of the twentieth century, have identified the basic functions of philosophy. Their essence lies in the fact that philosophy poses questions and raises problems that embrace the world as a whole.
Within the framework of the structure of philosophical knowledge thesefunctions are very interrelated and mutually cause each other. When philosophical knowledge tries to solve the problem of being as such, the forces that drive it, its essence and forms, fundamental principles and categories, then it fulfills an ontological function. Although the term "ontology" was introduced into scientific discourse only in the 17th century, various variants of comprehension of being were developed from antiquity. But the main functions of philosophy do not end there. At least, its ontological and cognitive role is inseparable from each other.
Philosophy, of course, is not the sum of scientificknowledge as a specific science. But she raises the question of how theoretical, including specifically scientific cognition, is possible. Gnoseology explores the problems, sources, possibilities of cognition, the criteria for its probability and truth, and raises the question of the unity and difference of knowledge and understanding. The main functions of philosophy include such an essential function of knowledge as the science of the method. This is the doctrine of the principles of cognition of the world and its individual phenomena, as well as methods of revealing regularities. However, some philosophical teachings recognize the knowability of the world, while others believe that the methodology does not lead to truth.
The main functions of philosophy are not only tounderstanding of the theoretical and rational spheres of human life. One of its most important roles is praxeological, connected with the analysis of the relationships between people, society and culture. Its development was the reason for the emergence of the philosophy of history, religion, aesthetics, ethics, politics and so on. A special function also emerged: the philosophy of values. This is a theory about principles that have universal significance. They determine the nature of various human actions, as well as the criteria for the difference between good and evil, and the choice between them. The axiological role of philosophy is that it studies human values and ideals, generalizing the spiritual experience of many generations, offering universal and universal values and warning against neglecting them.
Since all philosophical problemsrethink through the prism of human perception, they are inseparable from a system of categories such as faith, love, morality, attitude toward death, and so on. The nature of the outlook is determined by such categories as a life position or attitude.
Based on this orientation of the individual,change the look at the essence of man and his spiritual and social nature. So, the fatalistic approach sees a person as a doomed puppet, and voluntaristic, on the contrary, speaks of the absolute freedom of man. That is why the philosophical function of philosophy also has considerable significance. It can be said that these basic roles, which crystallized over many years of the history of philosophy, are permanent, "invariant", and provide the key to understanding the various dimensions of philosophical knowledge.