The biggest hole in the earth
The creations of nature are always fascinating, especiallyif they are objects of a giant scale. There are huge holes in the earth's crust of incredible dimensions. However, their authorship does not always belong to nature, a man-made big hole can also cause shock among others.
Quarry in Yakutia
Scientists can not give an exact answer about naturethe emergence of most giant natural holes. The spectacle is as impressive as it is dangerous. The abyss can open almost anywhere, absorbing at home, cars, people. Here are the most famous holes of different origin.
In Yakutia is one of the largest open-cast mines in thethe whole planet. Its dimensions are more than 0.5 km deep and almost one and a half kilometers in diameter. The name of the quarry - the kimberlite pipe "Mir". It was opened in the 50-ies of the twentieth century and worked until 2001. All this time, Kimberlite ore was mined in this open way, which is rich in diamonds. Today, it is unprofitable to extract the remaining ore reserves, so underground mines have been built. Large holes in the earth can be created by human hands.
Other man-made holes
The largest quarry on the planet, createdman, is Kennecott Bingham Canyon Mine. It is located in Utah. In the open pit mining is conducted in an open way. The width of the mine is almost 8 km, and the depth reaches four kilometers. The quarry was opened in 1863, production is still in progress today, so its size is constantly increasing.
In Canada on the islands there is a quarry where diamonds are mined. It's called Diavik. Around him grew all the necessary infrastructure, and even the airport.
The largest quarry that is created by manwithout the use of special equipment, is in South Africa. A large hole in the past was a place of mining diamondiferous ore. The parameters of this mine along the perimeter are about 1.5 km, and in width - more than 460 meters. Now this mine is a means of attracting tourists to the city. The giant hole was called the Kimberlite pipe. A large hole is striking in its dimensions.
In northern California there is a dam MonticelloThere is a funnel in the reservoir of the dam, the depth of the funnel is more than 21 meters, its upper part is 21 meters in diameter and the lower part is 8.5 meters through such a huge drain from the reservoir drain excess water. A large hole can easily become a local landmark, people like to visit places that are terrifying in scale.
In Guatemala, huge sizes were formedkarst failure, provoked by heavy rains and rising groundwater levels. According to eyewitnesses, even a few days before the formation of the funnel, locals could hear hum from under the earth and feel the shifts of the soil. As a result of the tragedy, people were killed and more than ten houses were destroyed.
A large blue hole is in atollLighthouse Reef. In fact, this is a karst deepening up to 120 meters deep, having more than 300 meters in diameter. The discoverer of this funnel was the famous scientist Jacques-Yves Cousteau. The nature of the formation of the blue hole is scientifically explained. During the glacial period, this relief had the appearance of a system of calcareous caves. Over time, when the ocean level rose significantly, the caves were flooded, and its vaults, consisting of porous limestone, collapsed. The blue hole is among the ten most successful places for scuba diving.
Holes of unknown origin
Holes in the earth appear as on desertedsites, and in areas that are densely populated by people. Unfortunately, often the appearance of such faults leads to tragic victims. Here are some of these cases of holes in the ground:
- In 2010 in Guatemala appeared a huge round funnel, which destroyed the garment factory. The reason for the appearance of such a break was the stormy rains. Of course, a large blue hole is more large-scale, but these formations also terrify the local population.
- In New Zealand the abyss opened to the depthfifteen and a width of fifty meters. In the failure the house fell, together with the family that was in it. Miraculously managed to avoid the victims. The reason was the collapse of the abandoned mine.
Funnels in the Middle Kingdom
In 2010, a big hole opened in China right in the middle of the road. Because of the soil shift, after a while, the hospital was destroyed.
In 2012, too, China appeared on the roadA hole in which a big truck hit. The driver managed to avoid falling into the abyss due to the fact that the cabin remained on the surface, and only the trailer hung in the pit.
In 2013, on the Chinese rice plantation inProvince of Huan formed a large hole up to 20 meters across. Less than six months in this area, there were about twenty such failures. It turned out that the industrial activity in the area disturbed the groundwater balance, which led to the formation of holes.
Huge holes in the ground can be beautifula sight, if they are in the wild. Such places often become tourist attractions. But the holes that appear as a result of human activity can be extremely dangerous. Therefore, in carrying out their industrial activities, one must always think about the consequences to which it can lead.