Turkmenistan: the standard of living. Turkmenistan through the eyes of a foreigner
Turkmenistan is a country that, in the 90s of the 20th century,After the disintegration of the Union, a rather difficult path took place. First there were destruction, then a period of gradual formation. Turkmenistan, whose standard of living still desired the best, began to develop confidently. The people played an important role in this process. One of the first republics adopted the Declaration of Sovereignty. In 1995, this state became neutral.
The complex process of becoming
The first decade of independent existence of Turkmenistan passed in the complex processes of destruction of the way of life existing up to this period.
Factors contributing to economic development
Turkmenistan, whose standard of living has grown significantly thanks to the perseverance and diligence of the people, has been able to stop the destructive processes in the economy.
Turkmenistan is a magnificently gifted godplace. Its main features are a sunny and warm climate, deposits of gas and oil. The country is characterized by a closed type of economy, manifested in the fact that foreign investments are attracted only to complex deposits. It should be noted that Turkmenistan is a geographically closed space, has no access to the sea, and is also surrounded by states in which the political situation often hampers the expansion of gas pipelines. And, of course, a talented people, in the East, conservative in political aspect, but appreciating what it has.
- the modern agrarian sector can bring annually about two million tons of wheat and the same amount of cotton;
- equipping the processing industry with new plants for processing raw cotton or sugar beet;
- in the light industry there were new factories of denim and cotton fabrics;
- from Turkmen oil in a modern oil refinery, lubricating oils and high-octane gasoline are produced;
- due to the annual supply of natural gas and oil to the industry, Turkmenistan's demand for energy materials is fully covered.
Turkmenistan through the eyes of a foreigner
A person who has been out for a while inthe country, strikes almost everything in Turkmenistan. So, with a huge speed, the landscape, architecture and infrastructure of the country as a whole and its individual cities are transformed. The fairy-tale speed of building new high-rise buildings, swimming pools, hospitals, motorways, concert halls, tennis courts, business centers, hotels, stadiums, as well as the beautiful Ashgabat airport of marble and glass is traced.
Economy of Turkmenistan
Modern Turkmenistan, whose living standards have improved significantly, is characterized by political calm and stability.
The economy of Turkmenistan is successfully developing due to significant investments of foreign investors in the energy and mining industries.
In a rather short period, this countryhas evolved from a resource base to a rapidly developing state. The modern economy of Turkmenistan confirms its independence. This state amazes with its tranquility in the streets and beneficial external changes.
Today, Turkmenistan (the standard of living of the people)the first place among the countries of Central Asia and the CIS. The population has the opportunity to use free of charge natural resources: salt, gas, water and light. At a sufficient level, air communication between the cities of Turkmenistan is developed.
Key macroeconomic indicators
The International Monetary Fund in 2015 predicts a decline in GDP growth to 9% (this information is available on the official website of the IMF).
The expected decline in GDP this year in the opinion of the IMF will occur due to a decrease in the level of revenues from the export of natural gas, as well as a reduction in public investment relative to GDP.
Despite the latest decline in the nationalcurrency, the expected inflation at the end of the year will be about 6.5% (the average indicator of Turkmenistan is 7.5%). Such a situation will become possible due to the subsequent fall in food prices in the world and the appreciation of the dollar.
Life in Turkmenistan for Other Nationalities
The 2003 census showed that Turkmens make up only 85% of the total population of the state, the remaining 15% are representatives of other nationalities.
In 2013, the situation somewhat worsened, soas under the pretext of changing old passports for the new Turkmen authorities, "doubles" were offered to renounce other citizenship, except Turkmen. This problem has not been solved to this day.
The standard of living in Turkmenistan today
The level of modern life in the country in question has grown significantly in recent years, and this is confirmed by the analysis of this indicator on the example of the capital - Ashgabat.
For ordinary people, such arguments may seemslightly naive. However, economists can confidently say that improving the welfare of the population of any state can take place only with the growth of GDP, an increase in per capita income. In this case, an ordinary person only focuses on the prices of products that are on store shelves. Based on these components, we can say that the average standard of living of the population in Turkmenistan has become higher.
Priorities in development
To further improve living standards in theTurkmenistan should be provided with strong social guarantees for the population, which are the basis for the development of economic activities, as well as forms of ownership. The reform of the banking, credit and financial system of the state should continue, the most favorable conditions for the protection and social support of the population are created.
Improvement of the legal framework
This is the first direction, which should strengthen anddevelop a market economy. One of the main directions for finalizing the economic block has been the development of new legislation, which defines the legal framework for commercial (entrepreneurial) activities. This circumstance is a necessity of the subsequent legal regulation of the processes of creation and operation of business entities. An important place among them is occupied by enterprises.
Legislation of tax, monetary and budgetary spheres
This is the second direction of improvementregulatory and legal framework. The modern legal framework is distinguished by a certain solidity, as well as regulates relations in the financial system of the entire state. The focus of this process should be on improving the efficiency of the state budget as a macroeconomic mechanism for managing the entire economy of the country.
The success of the budget policy directlydepends on the tax system of the state. The main principle of legislative work is the codification of the entire tax regulatory and legal framework that Turkmenistan currently has. Scientific life in this can significantly improve the overall state of legislation. So, based on a systematic study of various taxes and fees, as well as methods and forms of ensuring their payment to the budget, a unified system for the formation, collection and approval of all compulsory payments should be developed and legislated.
Regulation of the activities of individual economic sectors
This direction is the third in importance andshould contribute to the legal regulation of activities carried out in certain sectors that occupy one of the key places in the entire economic structure of Turkmenistan.
Thanks to the socio-economicreforms and reforms will be intensively developed in such sectors of the economy: agro-industrial, fuel-energy and construction complexes. It is impossible in this case to forget about the textile industry, construction industry, transport and communications.
Summarizing the material presented, it is necessaryTo note that Turkmenistan was able to overcome the difficulties that arose after the collapse of the Union, and not only to overcome the crisis, but also to take the road of economic development.