Export quota and other indicators of openness of the economy
The economy of the country whereMost of the markets, spheres and sectors of the economy are freely accessible to foreign entities. In recent decades, as a result of changes in the world economy, most countries have become part of the states with open economies.
The most important indicators of openness of the economy -participation in world trade (the specific value of exports and imports in production, the size of the foreign trade quota), as well as the relative weight of foreign investment relative to domestic ones. The absolute indicators include, for example, the value of exports of goods (services) in monetary terms per capita. In the United States, this figure is more than 3200 dollars, Russia - about 700 dollars.
With the open character of the world economyThe state regulates the development of the national economy with the help of the so-called. tariff and non-tariff barriers. Tariffs include increasing the amount of customs duties on imported goods. In 1948, an agreement was signed between the member countries of the World Trade Organization, from the moment of the beginning of which the level of customs duties has decreased from 40% to 5-7% on average. Now levers of influence, mainly, are non-tariff methods.
What it is? First of all, quoting. The foreign trade quota is a restriction imposed on the export or import of goods by their quantity or total value. Quotas are set for a specific period and can be either general (for state needs) or special:
- natural, carrying restrictions due to capacity, for example, oil pipelines or port terminals;
- exceptional (introduced in emergency cases to protect the domestic market and ensure national security);
- tariff (limiting the number of goods imported at reduced rates or duty-free.) Goods that are imported in excess of the established limit are taxed at the full rate);
- export and import.
The export quota is a limited amountexport supplies of a particular product. It is usually introduced in countries that specialize in the export of specific raw materials as a measure of price stabilization. Thus, the export quota is a quantitative indicator characterizing the importance for the national economy of the export of a certain type of product or raw materials. It is calculated for a certain period as a percentage of the volume of exported products (in quantitative or value terms) to the value of domestic production.
With the voluntary restriction of export supplies, the export quota is usually established through a bilateral agreement or international agreement.
Such an agreement can determine the share of each country in the export of a particular commodity (for example, oil). Also, the export quota can be introduced by the government of the country in order to:
- sufficient filling of the domestic market with this type of product;
- restrictions on exports and stabilization of the price of goods on the domestic market;
- ensuring balance of trade balance and protecting national production interests;
- regulation of the processes of supply and demand of the domestic market;
- preservation of natural resources;
- in response to discrimination in trade policies of other states.
Import quotas allow to avoiddepending on imports in the event of a reduction in the stock of necessary products (due to climatic or other conditions) and serves as a tool in negotiations on the export of national products.
Quoting is more flexible anda progressive instrument of foreign trade policy, than the change in tariffs, since the latter is established by the country's legislation and international agreements, moreover, the quota makes it impossible to increase sales by reducing prices. In addition, through quotas, the state can support certain producers and industries.
Licensing of foreign trade can actas part of the quota or as an independent instrument of impact. The license (permission of state bodies) can be issued for import-export transactions or their volume. It is used for a certain period in relation to goods of national purpose and in a number of other cases. In Russia, licensing is subject to the right to export goods on a quota, as well as the import and export of certain special-purpose goods (military, precious stones and metals, etc.).