Golden rules of ethics. Ethics of relations, official ethics
For millennia people of different ages andsocial structures were looking for the most correct way of communicating with each other. The best representatives of philosophical and religious thought worked on how to bring universal relations to harmony. As a result, it turned out that, despite the difference in epochs and historical realities, the "golden rules of ethics" remain unchanged throughout the years. This is determined primarily by their universal character.
Treat people as you want them to treat you.
It is this principle that ismorality and has become the "golden rule of ethics", in one form or another preached by all the major world religions of both modernity and long ago. Even in the V century BC this ethical rule was formulated in the ancient Indian epic "Mahabharata". In a later period of history, it was reflected in the Old Testament, and then was witnessed by the Evangelists Matthew and Luke as the words uttered by Jesus Christ.
This simple, it would seem, rule often happensdifficult to follow. The reason lies in our natural human weaknesses, forcing us to be guided first of all by our own interests and neglected by strangers. The egoism inherent in one way or another to each person does not allow him, neglecting his own benefit, to make efforts to make it good for the other. The answer to the question: "How do I understand the golden rule of ethics and what does it mean to me?" Often becomes decisive in shaping a person as an individual.
Concepts of behavioral norms for ancient Sumerians
Based on the general principles of universalrelations, throughout its history, mankind has developed its golden rules of ethics. One of the first such attempts can be observed in the ancient Sumerians, who inhabited Mesopotamia. According to surviving written monuments of that era, the observance of moral standards by the inhabitants of the state was closely watched by the sun god Utu and goddess of justice Nanshe.
Annually, she was judging people, mercilesslypunishing those who, following the path of vice, created arbitrariness, evaded the implementation of rules and treaties, and also sowed enmity between people. She was delivered from an angry goddess and all sorts of crooks, deceiving in the markets of gullible buyers, and those who, having sinned, did not find the strength to admit what they had done.
Standards of etiquette in the Middle Ages
During the Middle Ages, the first aids appeared,in which the foundations of people's behavior in relation to civil and ecclesiastical authorities were formulated, as well as to household members. By that time, a certain standard of behavior had been worked out in various situations. The rules that he made were called etiquette.
From the ability to behave in society, observing etiquette,in many respects depended not only on the successful career of the courtier, but sometimes on his very life. Similar rules, rigidly regulating all aspects of communication between people, even monarchs were obliged to follow. It was not the ethic of behavior in our sense. In their courts, etiquette was in the form of a ritual and was intended to exalt the august persons and to consolidate the class division of society. Etiquette dictated literally everything, starting from the shape and size of the buckles of shoes and ending with the rules for the reception of guests.
Rules of etiquette in the East
There are many cases where non-compliance with the rulesetiquette was the reason for the disruption of important diplomatic missions, and sometimes led to the beginning of wars. The most pedantically they were observed in the countries of the East, and especially in China. There were complex ceremonies of greeting and tea drinking, often putting foreigners in an extremely embarrassing situation. In particular, Dutch merchants encountered this and established trade relations with Japan and China at the turn of the 17th and 18th centuries.
Contracts for the exchange of goods and authorization forTrade was achieved by them through the implementation of numerous and sometimes humiliating etiquette regulations. It is known, for example, that the director of the Dutch trading post together with his employees was forced to regularly present gifts to the reigning person, called a shogun. It was believed that in this way they expressed their loyalty and devotion.
As in the eastern countries, and at courtsEuropean monarchs, the requirements of etiquette were so complex that specially supervised people appeared to monitor their observance: the master of ceremonies. It should be noted that this science was taught by no means to all, but only to aristocrats. The ability to behave in compliance with all the rules of etiquette was considered a sign of social superiority and an important feature that separated the privileged strata of society from the vulgar common people.
Old Russian printed collections of rules of conduct
In Russia, ethical principles of behavior were firstquite fully set out in the famous "Domostroe" - the immortal creation of the archpriest Sylvester. In the XVI century, he made an attempt to formulate the basic rules of behavior, which included not only an indication of what should be done, but also explain how to achieve a better result.
Very much in it echoes with the biblicalThe Ten Commandments given to Moses on Mount Sinai. Includes Domostroy and advice not to do to others what you do not want yourself. This is by no means accidental, because the "golden rules of ethics" are the foundation on which all ethical principles are based.
The next step in establishing norms in Russiapublic behavior became a code of rules published during the times of Peter I, known as "Youths an honest mirror ...". He included detailed explanations of how it behooves to behave in the most varied circumstances of life. On his pages, it was explained that it was decent, and what was not in society, at home, at work, and so on. There were specific indications of the permissibility or inadmissibility of certain actions when communicating with other people, during a conversation, at a table or on the street. In this book, the "golden rules of ethics" were set out in relation to specific situations.
Harm from formalism in following ethical norms
It is important to note that by assimilating those or normsbehavior, certainly necessary in everyday life, a person is exposed to danger, blindly fulfilling the prescriptions laid down in them, to fall into a very undesirable extreme - hypocrisy and a tendency to evaluate the dignity of surrounding people not according to their human qualities, but only in apparent respectability.
In former times, among the capital's aristocracythere was a fashion to adhere to the style of life, called the French expression "comme il faut". His followers, indifferent to their inner content, the ethic of behavior was reduced to strict observance of the established high society norms, which concerned, mainly, the external attributes - clothes, hairstyles, manner of holding and talking. A vivid illustration of Russian literature is the image of Eugene Onegin in the early days of his life.
Rules of conduct in the common people
All official treatises concerning the normsbehavior, were focused exclusively on representatives of privileged classes and in no way concerned peasants and artisans. Their ethics of relations were regulated mainly by religious precepts, and the attitude towards a person was determined by his business qualities and diligence.
An important place in the life of ordinary people was givenveneration of the father of the family. According to unwritten but strictly enforced laws, his sons were supposed to take caps in his presence, forbidden first to sit at the table and start eating. A special condemnation was all attempts to contradict the head of the house.
Women and girls were requiredphysical and moral purity, ability to childbearing, ability to farm and remain fun, thrifty and patient at the same time. The outbreaks, often falling from their husbands, were not considered a humiliation of dignity, but "science." Wives convicted of adultery, were severely punished for the edification of others, but from the family, as a rule, they were not expelled, so as not to deprive the children of maternal care.
Laws that are independent of time
Over time, the way of lifechanged, giving way to new forms, conditioned by social and technological progress. In accordance with this, many rules of behavior that were purely formal, and limited by time and class limits, have become a thing of the past. At the same time, the "golden rules of ethics" remained unchanged. Overcoming the time barrier, they firmly took their place in our life today. We are not talking about the appearance of some new types of "golden rule", simply, along with the previous ones, its modern forms have emerged.
The need for comprehensive education
Even without taking into account compliancesurrounded by any specific rules of behavior, it is not difficult to single out among them cultural people with whom there is a desire to continue communication, and ill-bred, repulsive with their undisguised rudeness and rudeness. This indicates their low internal culture, which can not develop without the purposeful development of its external forms. Everyone has in his heart certain desires, emotions and impulses. However, only an educated person will not allow them to express themselves in public.
This determines the need for trainingeach person, and especially the young people, the rules of conduct that will not allow, as the outstanding Soviet teacher VA Sukhomlinsky put it, "to pour salt on wounds and knock on boots where it is proper to hold your breath." The lack of elementary education, which is based on culture and ethics, can serve a very poor service even to a talented and wonderful man in his own way.
There is no need to mention that every personI want kindness, attention and sympathy. Wishing to receive them from others, many people nevertheless remain mean to their manifestation. Offended at someone else's rudeness, do not hesitate to show it at every opportunity. It would seem that the elementary principles of ethics, dictated by life itself, should teach a person to smile with a smile, give way to a woman or manage to maintain a benevolent tone during a dispute, but this is very rare. Therefore, good manners and culture of behavior are, as a rule, not a natural gift, but the result of upbringing.
Appearance - a guarantee of a profitable impression
It is also important to note this detail: among the factors that form the general picture of our communication with others, there can not be trifles. Therefore, it is extremely erroneous to believe that in this matter the appearance plays a secondary role. This follows from the conclusion of many psychologists who say that most people tend to evaluate our strengths and weaknesses, guided by appearance, since it is in many ways a characteristic of the inner content. It is appropriate to recall the biblical wisdom that says: "The spirit creates a form for itself."
Of course, over time, when people getthe opportunity to get acquainted with each other more thoroughly, their opinion about each other, based on purely external perception, can either be confirmed or changed to the opposite, but in any case its formation begins with the appearance that consists of a number of details.
In addition to neatness, charm and physical beauty,attracts attention the ability of a person to dress according to his age and in accordance with fashion. It would be wrong to downplay its role in the life of society, because fashion is nothing more than one of the standards of human behavior, although it has a sometimes very short form. It is formed spontaneously under the influence of prevailing moods and tastes at the moment, but its influence on people's behavior is indisputable.
In addition to a reasonable following of fashion,who wants to make a favorable impression on others, should take care of the proper condition of his own body. This should be understood as compliance with personal hygiene and exercise, which will not only improve the appearance, but will also cause a sense of self-confidence. Repeatedly proved the relationship between satisfaction with their own appearance and confidence both in solving personal issues, and in professional activities. For a more complete self-realization, it should take into account the need to observe strictly professional ethical standards.
Business and official ethics
Under official ethics, it is customary to understand the wholea set of norms of behavior of a person engaged in a particular activity. It consists of a number of general and private components. It includes professional solidarity, sometimes acquiring forms of corporatism, the concept of duty and honor, as well as the consciousness of responsibility imposed by this or that activity. Also, the service ethic determines the norms of the relationship between managers and subordinates, the culture of official communication within the collective and the behavior of its members in the event of any contingencies and conflicts.
Under business ethics it is accepted nowadays to understanda set of laws of business, sometimes not legally formalized, but generally accepted in business circles. They often determine the order and style of work, the partnership relationship and the turnover of documentation. Ethics of modern business is a set of norms developed over a long historical period under the influence of cultures of different peoples and their ethnic characteristics.