Underground earthquake in Bashkortostan: statistics, assessments of eyewitnesses and experts
Earthquake - fluctuations of the earth's surface, inin a number of cases, leading to disruptions, earth faults, mountain and valley formations. Very often they occur in areas located in close proximity to mountain ranges, active volcanoes. But sometimes, earthquakes are felt in the territories located far from the mountains. This natural phenomenon can be observed in any areas of the Earth. What caused earthquakes in Bashkortostan, we will try to understand and answer this question.
Causes of earthquakes
In Bashkiria quite often fixed non-strongearthquakes, which sometimes amount to 4 points. But even two-point ones can be felt realistically. What could be the cause of the tremors? As scientists explain the occurrence of earthquakes in the territory of Bashkiria, this can be facilitated by echoes of powerful tremors in other parts of the Earth, large construction works or karst layers in the area and many other reasons. During the construction of the Yumanguzinsky reservoir in 2011, significant tremors occurred.
The earthquake in Bashkiria was recorded andwinter of 2017, when the inhabitants of Meleuzovsky district felt quite strong tremors. This happened on February 4 at 18.30 pm. As eyewitnesses describe, everything happened suddenly. The house shook. The chandeliers swayed and the dishes rang, the feeling was as if large layers of snow fell from the roof. But the snow did not fall from the roof. As it turned out later, it was an earthquake. Specialists of the Ministry of Emergency Situations explained this fact with echoes of four-point shocks in the Altai.
Before this event, the earthquake in Bashkiria wasrecorded in May 2013, when visitors to some buildings in Ufa were evacuated. At the same time, an eight-point earthquake occurred in the Far East. Scientists associate them with each other.
Do not exclude scientists and technogenic causes of sometremors. So on the night of September 6, 2015, another earthquake was recorded in Bashkiria, it happened in Uchalinsky district. A one-time rather strong push was recorded. He was especially strong in the center. The area of the site of its impact was equal to three square kilometers.
Presumably it is believed that the earthquakewas provoked by Uchalinsky ore mining and processing enterprise, which is developing in deep quarries. The technogenic version is also supported by the Ministry of Emergency Situations, as it believes that a single impulse speaks about this, which is not the case with natural phenomena. It can also be assumed that there was a normal shift of the earth's crust, but this is not confirmed.
In the territory of the Republic of Bashkortostannatural minerals, the extraction of which is the deep development of the earth's surface. In addition, oil is extracted here, with which voids form in the seams of the earth, so that the versions of the technogenic origins of some earthquakes occur.
The Ural Mountains
The territory of Bashkiria is the Ural Mountains, andit is not a young but active structure. The Ural Mountains lie at the junction of two platforms: the East European and West Siberian. This situation can cause stress and friction. Confirmation of this can serve as an earthquake on October 19, 2015, which affected not only Bashkiria, but Sverdlovsk and Perm regions. Its epicenter was located at a distance of 165 kilometers from Yekaterinburg in the village of Shali, the magnitude of the tremors registered by the "Arti" observatory amounted to 4.2 points. According to the same observatory, the tremors continued for 2 minutes.
People in the apartments and houses shook the walls and windows. Specialists in seismic exploration of the USMU have defined it as deep focus and weak. The earthquake in Bashkiria on October 19, 2015 showed that the Ural Mountains are still seismoactive and such kind of earthquakes are often felt by residents of several Ural regions.
What is an earthquake?
It's strange to hear that in Bashkiriaan earthquake, but it happens. They occur all over the Earth. In the last 30 years, scientists have proven that the earth's crust is moving. This is confirmed by oceanological, geophysical and geographical data obtained with the help of modern instruments. And the movement in different parts of the earth can be different. There are two types of movement: rapid - catastrophic; slow - century.
By name, you can guess that the worstand destructive - the first. An interesting fact: every five minutes on earth earthquakes are recorded by seismological stations. With strong fluctuations, a powerful and short-lasting force of sudden strikes will be characteristic, entailing terrible destruction and many human casualties.
Scientists on Earth have seismically activebelt, it includes mountain ranges of the Alps, the Caucasus, the Carpathians, the mountains of Central Asia, the Himalayas. In this belt is located Italy, where they felt the destructive tremors in 2016 on August 26. Earthquakes in Bashkortostan that day were not registered.
Seismological situation in Bashkortostan
In Bashkiria earthquakes are very rare andThere is no real threat. Seismic stations register mainly karst earthquakes, which occur as a result of the collapse of underground cavities. They are not a danger.
Despite the fact that the seismically active beltis far from Bashkortostan, its activity can be traced in the republic. True, they are usually of minor strength. For example, an earthquake was recorded in Bashkiria in December 2000. It was felt by the inhabitants of Ufa. On October Avenue, residents of several houses went out into the street, in which chandeliers and dishes rang.
There were marked tremors by force of two points. They were characterized as echoes of the Tajik earthquake. But with the powerful underground destructive shocks in Japan, the earthquake in Bashkiria on July 16, 2007 was not observed.
The territory of the Republic has a rather complexgeological structure. One third of it consists of karstic rocks. As a rule, as a result of the collapse, they create voids, which in the process of collapse threaten the earthquake.
The region is saturated with dangerous enterprises, to themoil refining, chemical enterprises. On the territory of Bashkortostan, oil and gas pipelines run. People are increasingly involved in nature: new reservoirs are being built; drilling oil and gas deep wells, digging mines, huge giant quarries. This leads to the threat of destruction of the earth's crust, its progress.
The need to create a seismological service
In this difficult situation it is necessary to determinethe most dangerous places, to monitor the seismic situation in the republic. The need to create a seismological service, forecasting critical situations using geomagnetic, geological, geophysical and seismological studies, is very urgent.
It is not to be hoped that the Urals are quite calm inseismologically respected area. Everything in this world is relative. Calm today can become dangerous tomorrow. The most frequent in Bashkiria, as indicated above, are earthquakes, formed by avalanches of karst rocks, artificial emptiness. It is necessary to create a single map, where all dangerous areas will be marked.