Dialectical method in philosophy
Dialectics in philosophy is a way of thinking, in which things and phenomena are considered in their formation and development, in close interconnection with each other, in the struggle and unity of opposites.
In antiquity, the sensible worldwas represented as an eternal becoming and movement in which opposites coexist and are in unity. Early Greek philosophers saw the infinite variability of the surrounding world and at the same time said that the cosmos is a beautiful and complete whole, resting in peace. Their dialectic was formed as a description of this movement and rest, and also as a reflection of the incessant transformations of one element into another, one thing into another.
The dialectical method of the Sophists was reduced to a purenegation: by paying attention to the continuous change of ideas and concepts refuting each other, they came to a conclusion about the relativity and limitations of human knowledge in general, believed that it is impossible to comprehend the truth.
The most dialectical method was developed by GeorgeHegel, the German philosopher of the nineteenth century: his main idea is that opposites mutually exclude and at the same time mutually suggest each other. The contradiction for Hegel is an impulse to the evolution of the spirit: it makes the thought move forward, from simple to complex and increasingly complete result.
Hegel sees the main contradiction in the very idea of the absolute: it can not simply resist the non-absolute, finite, otherwise it would be limited
The dialectical method of Hegel is the process of self-improvement of the concept. Dialectics is both the method and content of its philosophy.
Marxist philosophy also useddialectical method, but it is closely connected with the materialist conception of being and man, and therefore more practical: it considers, first of all, social, and not strictly philosophical contradictions.
The dialectical method was used not only inWestern, but also in Eastern philosophy: for example, in China this is the concept of Yin and Yang - two different aspects of one reality that turn into each other.
The dialectical method is opposed to the metaphysical method, which is turned to the sources of being as such, to the search for the original nature of reality.