Russian philosophy of the 19th century: ideas, their role and significance

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Russian philosophy of the 19th century is athe diversity of domestic political doctrines and ideological positions. The century before last gave the world such thinkers as MA. Bakunin, P.Ya. Chaadaev, I.V. Kireevsky, F.M. Dostoevsky, A.S. Khomyakov, K.S. Aksakov, TN. Granovsky, A.I. Herzen, L.N. Tolstoy, K.N. Leontiev, V.G. Belinsky, N.V. Fedorov, as well as many other prominent theoreticians.

Russian philosophy of the 19th century
Russian philosophy of the 19th century is a reflection of ideologicalthe searches of scientists who belonged to two opposite currents - Westernism and Slavophilism. Supporters of the latter direction were talking about the uniqueness of the development of the Russian state, cultivated Orthodoxy, seeing in it a huge potential for the social future of the country. Specificity of this religion, in their opinion, should allow it to become a unifying force that will help solve many problems of society.

The natural continuation of the belief in the miraculousthe power of Orthodoxy became political ideas. The best option for the development of the Russian state Russian philosophers of the 19th century, who belonged to Slavophilism, considered the monarchical form of government. This is not surprising, because the reason for the planting of Orthodoxy in Russia was the need to strengthen the autocracy. Among the supporters of this trend were KS. Aksakov, I.V. Kireevsky, A.S. Hamsters.

Russian philosophers of the 19th century
Russian philosophy of the 19th century is also characterized bypolitical and moral views of Westerners. Supporters of secular atheism and materialism revered the works of Hegel, adhered to democratic views and advocated a radical overthrow of the existing power. The revolutionary mood was supported by the followers of this trend in varying degrees, but the idea of ​​overcoming the autocracy and the development of socialism was maintained to the same extent.

Westerners became the founders of the Russianenlightenment, advocated the enrichment of the national culture. The development of science proponents of this area also considered a priority. In the works of MA. Bakunin, A.I. Herzen, V.G. Belinsky, N.G. These ideas are revealed in Chernyshevsky. The vision of each author has its own specifics, but similar writings can be traced in the writings of theoreticians.

Culture in Russia in the 19th century

Russian philosophy of the 19th century is the most valuablelayer of domestic history. Today, political and social reality does not cease to demonstrate vivid examples of the confrontation of concepts that originated more than a century and a half ago.

Knowledge of the history of the formation and development of ideas,which characterized the culture in Russia in the 19th century, allows us to see in a new light the phenomenon of modernity, like the introduction of the OPK schools. Supporters of this reform are the current followers of the Slavophiles, and the opposition is the Westernizers of the 21st century. The difference between the state of affairs in the past and today's Russia is that previously opposing currents were clearly decorated and did not mix. In the present phenomenon, they are not so unambiguous: thus, behind the Western formulation, "Slavophile reality" can be hidden. For example, the "main law" of Russia proclaims a secular state, which does not prevent representatives of the Orthodox religion from enjoying special privileges.

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