Philosophy: definition, origins
What is philosophy? Definition It is impossible to give it unambiguously becauseunderstanding varied significantly in different historical epochs, and even in the same period in different schools and directions, the points of view can be very different, including mutually exclusive. Its subject area has also been understood and is still understood in different ways.
Philosophy in Antiquity
"Love of wisdom" - this is how the word "philosophy" translates from ancient Greek. Definition Originally built on this. It is believed that the first to call himself a philosopher Pythagoras, and thus he expressed his greatest humility: he believed that only gods possess wisdom, and that it is inaccessible to mere mortals, and they can only love it, with all their might to strive for it.
Ancient Greek philosophy was autonomous frommythical representations and religious traditions, as well as from moral and political teachings. Often it was actually a synonym for science, as it represented pure knowledge, not aimed at achieving practical goals. On the other hand, philosophy was not an abstract higher knowledge, but a practice for achieving it.
Virtually everything that exists encompassed philosophy. The definition of her subject, however, was not limited to the whole world. Its main section is metaphysics. This research is not so much what exists, how many of the first and most common principles and principles of the organization of the world, its consideration in general and even of what is beyond the world.
In the texts of Plato there is the word "philosophy" - the definition What he and his disciples are doing.
If in the ancient era it was free fromreligion and morality, then for a long time "grew together" with Christianity and theology. Only in modern times philosophy in the West became relatively separate from religion phenomenon and again began to intensively come close to science.
Modern definitions of philosophy
In the modern sense, the original meaning of thisthe words went into the background, that is, speech is no longer about wisdom. Now it is often understood as a science that studies the most common fundamental characteristics of the world and man.
But is the definition correct: philosophy is science? Some philosophers do try to approach science using scientific methods of knowledge, first of all, logical. This point of view was called scientism.
At the same time, even the classical methods of cognition inphilosophy is not so universal and recognized by far not all: some philosophers are critical of logic and reason. They often seek, on the contrary, to divorce philosophy with science. This position is called anti-centristism.
You can define philosophy through its subject, but alsohere is not so simple. In the twentieth century, it became popular to say that it does not have a special subject area (as opposed to other scientific disciplines). It has a non-specialized subject area - everything, the world as a whole. This also distinguishes philosophy from science in a significant way: its subject can never be specialized.