The philosophy of life of Schopenhauer and Nietzsche
The philosophy of life is a popular direction,appeared in the late 19th century. What are its main characteristics? Life, according to this philosophical direction, is a combination of a whole series of aspects. Thinkers paid attention to the psychological, and biological, and social, and cultural aspects of being.
One of the most important features of the worksrepresentatives of such a direction as the philosophy of life is an attempt to consider the existence of a person in its integrity and the totality of all the details. Thinkers tried to embrace the whole being of man, to decipher his meaning. The most famous philosophers working in this direction are Nietzsche and Schopenhauer. Let's try to formulate the main points of their work.
We can say that the philosophy of life of Schopenhauersufficiently pessimistic. The great thinker believed that the existence of mankind and the mind are incompatible concepts. The philosopher did not believe in progress. He wrote that the whole life of man is subordinated not to rational motives, but to the so-called will. What is the will of Schopenhauer? If to explain briefly, then this is the basic instinct that prompts a person to save life at any cost. The will is expressed in certain affects. Basically, this is the need for power, love and so on. It should also be noted that the will is absolutely blind. It is not subject to the laws of logic.
Schopenhauer believed that as long as there is this will tolife that pushes a person toward aimless and unconstructive behavior, the whole existence is virtually meaningless and chaotic. What is the solution of the famous thinker? The philosophy of Schopenhauer's life is that a man must understand the necessity of giving up his will. Only in this case his life will not be subordinated to instinct, and the individual will gain true freedom. Here you can draw an analogy with the ancient mystical teachings, which indicated that the meaning of a person's life is to achieve nirvana. Both the great philosopher and the sages call for the abandonment of the illusory world, which is subordinated to instincts.
Schopenhauer's irrationalism was also shared by the famousphilosopher Nietzsche. The philosophy of his life sings a strong man who was able to create himself. Nietzsche gazed at the townsfolk, their petty worries and standard thinking. He sang a hymn to a superman who is far from conventions, authorities, public opinion. It is worth noting that Nietzsche also mentioned in his writings will, as the core of human life. However, here it is worth making small additions. Under the will of the philosopher meant the desire to rule. In a sense, this is the reason why Nietzsche was an opponent of Christian morality. The philosopher believed that religion makes slaves of people. What is his saying that only when the god dies, will man finally be free. Nietzsche also sang the ruler, the ruler of life, who does not obey anyone or anything. However, one should not think that the philosopher was inclined to nihilism. Nietzsche noted in his works the importance of independent intelligent thinking, individual cognition of life. The Thinker believed that each person is able to develop his own principles of existence, and not take those knowledge and laws that are imposed from the outside. Nietzsche wrote that the superman is the peak to which every reasonable person must strive
If you are interested in such a direction asphilosophy of life, for a better and complete understanding of it, you need to read the works of many authors. It is worth noting that the main theses of thinkers can differ significantly among themselves. Despite the fact that the philosophers worked in one direction, each of them has his own view of the world, and the place of the person in it.