Agnosticism in philosophy
Knowledge is nothing more than apurposeful active reflection of reality in the mind of man. In the course of this process, completely new facets of being are revealed, phenomena and objects of the surrounding world, the essence of things and much more are explored. It is also important that a person has the ability to know himself. The science of knowledge is epistemology.
In philosophy, there are two main points of view on the whole process of cognition:
As a rule, the supporters of Gnosticism arematerialists. They look at knowledge very optimistically. Their opinion - a person is initially endowed with the possibilities of knowledge, which are infinite, the world is cognized, and the true essence of all things will sooner or later be discovered. Agnosticism in philosophy is its complete opposite.
Agnostics are often idealists. They do not believe either that the world is cognized or that a person is capable of knowing it. In some cases only partial cognizance of the world is allowed.
Agnosticism in philosophy
Agnostics emphasize that it is impossible to accuratelyto say whether there are gods. In their opinion, the probability that God exists is absolutely equal to the fact that there is no God. Similar provisions add to this direction a fair amount of skepticism.
Agnosticism in philosophy is noteworthy in that itsfollowers are often classed as atheists or, at least, unbelievers. This is not entirely correct, since there are many agnostic theists. They identify themselves as agnostics, and also as followers of a particular religion.
Agnostics claim that the human mind is simpleis not able to understand the laws of nature, and also to notice signs of the existence of God, because for this something else is needed, not at all what man owns. If God is, he did everything so that a simple mortal could not just understand, but even feel it.
Agnosticism in philosophy: subcategories
There are several such subcategories:
- Weak agnosticism. It is also called soft, empirical, temporary, open and so on. The bottom line is that maybe the Gods exist, but it is impossible to know;
- Strong agnosticism. It is also called closed, absolute, strict or solid. The point is that the existence or non-existence of God can not be proved only for the reason that a person can not fully believe in either of these options;
- indifferent agnosticism. Beliefs based on the fact that there is not only no evidence of the existence of God, but also evidence that it does not exist;
- ignosticism. His representatives say that before asking questions about the existence of God, it is necessary to give an exhaustive definition of the word "God."
There is also exemplary atheism, agnostic atheism and agnostic theism.
This topic was studied by many. Representatives of agnosticism are different, but first and foremost always distinguish Johann Kant, who put forward a consistent theory of this philosophical direction. The essence is as follows:
- a person's abilities are very much limited by his natural essence (limited cognitive abilities of the human mind);
- cognition is nothing more than the independent activity of the ideal mind;
- The world is unknowable by itself. Man is able to know only the external side of objects and phenomena, but the inner side will forever remain a mystery to him;
- knowledge is a process, in the course of which matter studies itself. All this is possible with the help of its reflectivity.
In addition to Kant, philosophers made a big treasure in agnosticism, Robert J. Ingersoll, Thomas Henry Huxley and Bertrand Russell.