Philosophy of French Enlightenment
In the 18th century, France was in the period of activedevelopment of capitalism. At this time, the country was preparing for intensive changes and restructuring - it ended with all the well-known bourgeois revolution. It was at this angle that the philosophy of French enlightenment developed.
With such a course of development, the country, likenation, needed a definite explanation of events, the systematization of knowledge. The Renaissance period in France is characterized by a very negative attitude towards the feudalism, the privileges of representatives of noble origin. The philosophy of French enlightenment criticized religion and perceived the church only as an organ of social influence and a way of manipulating the population.
On the other hand, the greatest minds of the timebelieved that the root of all evil in the ignorance of ordinary citizens, as the limited mental development interfered with the normal perception of reality, understanding of their rights as a person. The social philosophy of French enlightenment was based on the idea of education. It was believed that the nobility and the royal family needed education, they needed to explain all the details of government.
Philosophy of the French Enlightenment and its main directions. During this period of development, three main points of view were clearly formed, each of which had its followers and followers:
- Deism - this direction rejected the idea of a personal God and the possibility that the divine principle has any influence on the course of events;
- Materialism - developed under the influence of science,especially mechanics. Adherents of this trend believed that philosophy should summarize all scientific data. Of course, the existence of God was rejected categorically. The scientists explained the existence of the world only from the point of view of natural science;
- Socialist, or utopian, direction - developed already after the revolution;
Philosophy of French Enlightenment: Voltaire. Perhaps, this is one of the most famous in historyan activist of culture and philosophy. This well-known writer at certain times abandoned religion and its laws, having joined the group of deists. Of course, Voltaire did not give up faith in God. But he believed that God only creates the world, gives him a certain movement and does not prevent things from going on their own.
This famous thinker preached the humaneattitude towards the common people. Nevertheless, he believed that only a monarchy is the only ideal form of the state. He saw the problem only in the rulers and their reluctance to take care of the uneducated poor people.
Philosophy of the French Enlightenment and its representatives.
J.Zh.Rousseau is another well-known philosopher, writer and educator. He rejected the authority of the church for its superstition, unjustified cruelty and fanaticism. At the same time, he recognized that the state needs a religion that would make citizens useful members of society. He even created the concept of a "civil" religion, which implied faith in the afterlife, a just repayment for deeds, a reward for good and punishment for evil.
Lametrie - was a convinced atheist and rejectedprobability of the existence of God. Moreover, he denied the importance of religion to humanity and believed that real morality comes only with experience. This philosopher was inclined to think that every person is born evil, treacherous and vicious. And virtue and other positive qualities are acquired in the process of correct education.
Diderot - this scientist had a slightly different viewfor life. He believed that man by nature is born good. Evil occurs when a person grows up. The morality of a nation depends on laws, the social system of government and the way of life.