The main types of buyers in the market and in the store
The relationship between the seller and the buyers is one of thethe most difficult, because the seller needs to look for a common language with them. According to the research, the effectiveness of sales depends on how much the seller knows the types of customers and is able to look for an approach to them. And buyers are primarily people, each of which has its own psychological characteristics.
We are all different, we visit different outlets,choose the products of well-known and not very brands at expensive and affordable prices. The modern standard of living allows us to classify all buyers according to the following principles:
- Potential: there are buyers who regularly visit one or another outlet, but do not buy the goods.
- New customers enter the store for the first time. And the sellers are faced with the task of making a good impression on customers, so that they make a choice in favor of this outlet.
- Constant buyers: they are familiar to sellers, always make a choice in a particular store and appreciate it for the quality of products, or prices, or maintenance personnel.
- Buyers without preferences: these types of buyers are the most difficult, since they need to be carefully worked with.
Each of us comes to a certain store forspecific purchases. And each of us has special emotions from visiting one or another outlet. All the clients are classified by the individual types according to their emotional state:
- Uncommunicative customers: they are distinguished by restraint and quiet behavior, they do not like to answer questions from sellers.
- Shy buyers always consider themselves right, so they rarely listen to the advice of sellers, differ nervousness and excitement.
- Good-natured customers are always willing to talk with sellers, listen to their advice and even follow them. Sometimes such customers buy goods, because they are afraid to insult the seller with their mistrust.
These are the main types of shoppers by storeemotional state, but between these categories a lot of clients whose psychological state can vary from aggression to self-confidence and obsession.
Shopping is an emotional process, and everyonethe buyer behaves differently. Someone can choose the same thing for a long time, having measured their set, and someone comes for a particular model and buys it. According to psychologists, all types of buyers behave differently when a new product appears on the shelves:
- Innovators are those customers who are fasterall react to new items in stores, and for them self-assertion is more important. These clients, according to psychologists, are striving to make the original, and most importantly, new clothes attract the attention of others.
- Active customers also make quick purchases, but they are driven by advertising.
- Progressive buyers are the most popular type, as they buy goods when the peak of its popularity falls.
- Materialists are customers who buy things that have already gone out of fashion at reduced prices. They do not accept novelties and take what has worked well.
What marketing experts say
In their opinion, it is possible to determine the type of the buyer by the behavioral criteria. Marketers distinguish 4 types of consumers:
- With complex behavior. This behavior is typical of customers who buy new and expensive goods. As a rule, such purchases are made infrequently, so it is done consciously. This buying behavior is called complex, as the consumer seeks to explore all aspects of the purchase in order to exclude possible risks for himself. In this case, the seller seeks to maximally informative and informative about the product and its properties, its advantages, so that the buyer can make sure of the correctness of his choice.
- Many types, types of buyers possessuncertain behavior, when they have the opportunity to choose from a number of identical and similar in terms of characteristics of goods. Psychologists note that such consumers acquire things as a means of self-expression.
- The usual buying behavior is typicalthose consumers who have low involvement and do not see a particular difference between goods. Such buyers simply go to the store for a particular thing and buy it without comparing and looking for benefits. Since such buyers have no adherence to the goods of a certain brand, for their stimulation marketers use such solutions as reduced prices or sales.
- Search behavior: consumers with this behavior do not focus on a particular brand - they choose what they like here and now.
Business types of clients
The buyer is different - cheerful and withdrawn,looking and knowing exactly why he came to the store or to the market. And if the market still has the opportunity to bargain and establish a convenient price for itself, then in stores this does not work. What types of customers are, it is important to know for the sellers themselves, as it allows you to properly organize work with customers. And the client is different, like his intentions:
- He wants and can buy: in this case, the seller is interested in attracting the customer and bringing it to the purchase.
- He wants to, but can not buy: in this case, the seller finds out the reasons for the impossibility of buying and tries to make sure that the customer still makes a choice in favor of this product.
- Does not want, but has the opportunity to buy.
All these types of buyers on the market meetquite often, so sellers have to think through the strategy and look for an approach to each specific buyer in accordance with its requirements and capabilities.
And who are you
All psychological types of clients can be described in the following words:
- Analysts always look for the answer to the question "How?""And seek to find a product that would meet their requirements. Such consumers will not be lazy to check the facts, as they love perfection in everything. They ask a lot of questions, so sellers have to strain all the strength and patience to bring all the important information to the client.
- Purposeful buyers always know whatthey want and when. So they come to the store or market for a specific purpose, set up to win, so mistakes or wrong choices are excluded. Such customers save their time, so they will not spend it on unnecessary questions.
- Clients-why are guided to find out all the ins and outs about the product. They talk a lot and ask, they patiently listen to all the answers, but the facts and details do not really interest them.
- Emotional buyers are at risk, they are energetic,so often make spontaneous purchases. Most often this type of people seeks to emphasize their prestige and love for comfortable conditions.
Models of behavior: Hotler ...
Shopping is a complex process andeconomic, and psychologically. Scientists even create special models of behavior of the end user. So, according to F.Hotler, each buyer behaves in stages: first he realizes and searches for information, then makes a decision and evaluates the correctness of his actions. The main types of buyers act like this: first they determine the need for buying, study it, then simulate the search situation and go to the store. And here it is already important that the consumer makes a quick decision, and many factors influence this.
According to Batman's model, the choice isrepeated procedure, not sequential. The scientist believes that the consumer first processes the information, is motivated to purchase the goods, evaluates it taking into account the situational influences and individual preferences. And then makes a decision, buy or not buy.
Which buyers, such and purchases
We are all unique, everyone has their own priorities,values and needs. Different types of buyers, types of purchases, and this is normal. But scientists believe that the choice of a particular product is primarily a psychological matter. And these are skillfully used by marketers and sellers. All purchases, in their opinion, are divided into three types:
- Purchases that are clearly planned.
- Spontaneous purchases here and now.
- Partially planned purchases.
It is noteworthy that most of the buyersmakes spontaneous purchases, and this can be goods of any price category. Most often, the consumer unplanned chooses something that is compact and often used at home. The sellers themselves put all these impulse goods in the most prominent place - so that the buyer does not exactly pass by. In addition, it is important that the place is carefully organized and attracted attention with bright colors or images.
From the economic point of view
The buyer is interesting not only to marketers and psychologists, but also to economists. They came to the conclusion that different types of buyers behave in accordance with several effects:
- the effect of solidarity with the majority;
- the effect of a snob;
- the Veblen effect;
- price effect.
The effect of solidarity with the majority shows that,that a person buys a commodity not because he needs it, but because the majority does so. That is, these buyers are eager to be like everyone else, fit the rest of the people to meet their ideas about fashion, elegance and so on.
The effect of a snob is the desire to make purchasesfor its status, to show its own importance and originality, stand out from the crowd. According to the Veblen effect, goods are bought for demonstrative consumption. Most often, expensive things are bought, designed to tell about the prestige and status of the buyer. The price effect dominates in the case when the goods are selected not only for quality, but also for the price.
All different, but all the same
In general, buying behavior canexplained by different factors - and incomes, and the immediate need, and the whim, and the desire to stand out. Someone evaluates the goods, someone chooses the most fashionable, someone always prefers the brand of the same product, and someone does not become attached to any specific brands. All of us are buyers of different types and standard of living, but, according to scientists, we all are waiting for quality things that would be sold to us with attention and communication. A modern buyer is not one that craves pleasures, but one who primarily seeks to be informed and monitor their decisions.